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Full text of "An Elementary Introduction to the Taita Language, Eastern Equatorial Africa"

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AX ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION 



TO THE 



TAITA LANGUAGE, 



EASTERN EQUATORIAL AFRICA. 



COMPILED BY 

J. ALFRED WRAY 

OF THE CUURCH MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 



SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE, 

LONDON: NORTHUMBEllLA.^D KSY.^^:V.. 

1894. ' 1 



r 



I 

) 



PL 8 70/ 

y7f 



PREFACE. 



The locality in which this language is spoken is a 
ijiountainous district called Taita, about one hundred 
and twenty miles W.N.W. from Mombasa, East Africa. 
It consists of three mountains, which rise abruptly 
out of the plain to a height of 5000 to 7000 feet above 
the sea, viz. Teta or Dabida, Sagalla, and Kasigau, and 
is inhabited by a wild robber tribe numbering about 
40,000, who speak a number of different dialects. 

The origin of this tribe is rather interesting, and 
may go a good way to account for these different 
forms of speech. Tradition says they came from the 
.surrounding countries, Mangea, Usambara, Pare, 
Ugweno, and Chaga ; and I would suggest that the 
emigrants were a few turbulent families, who were 
dissatisfied with their own country, and that their 
love for plunder led them to seek new homes where 
they could carry out their pernicious inclinations 
without let or hindrance. This theory will help to 
account for the fact of their having neither chief nor 
head, the only form of government being that of 
elders, who really have no authority whatever, each 
village having its own set of elders. 

That these dialects have existed side by side for 

many years is very apparent, and it seems likely they 

will continue to do so, as long as the respective peoples 

exist, if one may judge from their great antipathy 

a^^ahist using eacli other's dialects. 



f 



PREFACE. HI 

For convenience I have divided these dialects into 
two heads, viz. Kiteta or Kidabida, and Kisagalla, 
the former being much more extensively spoken than 
the latter. 

The Sagalla dialect, which forms the subject of 
this little work, is spoken by most of the people in- 
habiting the mountain of that name, and was col- 
lected by me during my seven years' residence in 
that country as one of the Church Missionary Society 't> 
missionaries. 

This language, like the Swahili, comes from the 
great Bantu stock, but it is so much unlike the 
Swahili as to prevent the two people from understand- 
ing each other at first ; yet any one having a know- 
ledge of the Swahili language possesses a golden key 
to the Taita language. 

The Compiler. 



Motnhasa, 
1894. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PART L 

ALPHABET 

ACCLNT 

I'AKTS OF SPEECH, ETC. 

CONTBACTIOKS 

SUBSTANTIVES 

ADJECTIVES 

IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES 

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES 

NUMEKALS 

PRONOUNS 

PERSONAL PRONOUNS 

POSSF^SIVE PROKOUNS 

REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS 

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN 

RELATIVE PRONOUNS 

INTERROGATIVES, ETC. . 
VERBS ... ... ... 

INDICATIVE MOOD 
isNARRATIVE TENSE 
^CONDITIONAL TENSt-S 

IMPERATIVE M0()1> 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD 

INFINITIVE MOOD 

NEGATIVE CONJUGATION- 
PASSIVE VOICE ... 

DERIVATIVE VERBS 

IRREGULAR VERBS 

AUXILIARY VEIJBS 

VERB "to be" ... 

VERB "to have" 
ADVERBS 

PREPOSITIONS 

CONJUNCTIONS 

INTERJECTIONS 

ENCLITICS, ETC. 



PAGE 

7 

7 
8 
9 

18 
18 
20 
20 
2.5 
25 
29 
S2 
3-3 
37 
39 
42 
44 
49 
50 
53 
53 
54 
54 
59 
60 
62 
66 
68 
71 
71 
72 
73 
74 
74 



PART II. 



JuXOLISHuSA GALLA YCCA ^ULAR Y 



11 



PART I. 
AN ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION 

TO THE 

TAITA LANGUAGE. 



SAG ALL A. DIALECT. 



THE ALPHABET. 



The vocal sounds contained in the Sagalla dialect 
may be represented by letters which may be divided 
into four groups — (1) simple vowels, (2) blended 
vowels, (3) simple consonants, (4) blended consonants. 

These groups are shown in the following tables : — 



SIMPLE 


BLENDED 






VOWELS. 


VOWRLS. 


SIMPLE CONS. 


BLENDED CONS, 


A 


Ai 


B, D, -D, F, G, 


Ch, Ly, 


E 


Au 


(jT, H, J, xC, L, 


Ng', Sh 


I 


Ei 


M, N, P, R, S, 





U 


Oi 


T, V, W, Y, 
Z. 





These letters are pronounced as follows : — 

A is pronounced as a in father, Aha^ father. 

B „ 6 „ hore^ Bigati, blood. 

Ch ,, c/i „ chisel, Chuchu, a dog. 

D „ d „ dance, Ku-dea, to do. 

'D ' DttU, ^vVlxiJv. 

E „ ea „ swear, Kxi-gema,\,'2» ^^'^^^ 



6 ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE. 



F is pronounced asy in Jire, Fisi, a hyena. 



G 


>» 


9 >,good, 


Ku-gaki, to go. 


'G 


>» 




Tgana, a hundred. 


H 


>> 


h „ harp^ 


Ku-hawa, to give. 






(always aspirated.) 


I 


n 


i in machiiUi 


Ku-ita, to pass. 


J 


» 


j ,Jump, 


Ku-jika, to descend. 


K 


>> 


k „ kind, 


Kindu, a thing. 


1. 


>> 


I „ ^?/e, 


Ku-lega, to refuse. 


Ly 






Ku-lya, to eat. 


M 


>> 


7>/ ,, iiiagicy 


-Ma/i, riches. 


N 


J J 


11 „ iiame, 


Kunasa, to join. 


Ng^ 


>j 


HfJ „ 5MA^, 


Nyomhe, an ox. 





.V 


„ comet, 


Ka-oya, to wash. 


P 


>> 


V »»F*^^ 


Ku-hipula, to 
empty. 


R 


» 


r ., ruiiy 


Ku-rasha, to scold. 


S 


>> 


8 „ sea, 


Ku-sela, to w^alk. 


Sh 


>> 


sh,, shin, 


Kvrshaia, to love. 


T 


>» 


t „ tree. 


Ku-tiiua, to 
measure. 


U 


?> 


00 „fool. 


i-Wo; ti-uth. 


V 


»> 


V „ virgin, 


Vindu, things. 


AV 


>» 


w „ ivay. 


If andu, men. 


Y 


>j 


y „ 2/««, 


yie^i^, ours. 


Z 


» 


z „ zebra, 


ir«A:«, bury. 


Ai 






//a^, negative in 
answer to a ques- 
tion. 


Au 






uVaw,, inch' 


Ki 






Ku- Leila, to dun. 


Oi 






IFot, interjection 
of surprise ! 



The proper sounds of '/>, '6^, and Z?/ can only be 
iirot from the natives. The two latter are peculiar to 
the Sagnlla dialect. 



SAGALLA DIALECT. 7 

There are also compound consonants which require 
notice. M may precede any consonant, in which case 
its vowel is suppressed ; it is sounded as m in 
whimper, if the syllables may be divided thus, 
whi^fiiper — 

MhvZa, a nose. 

N may precede the consonants Ch, D, G, J, A", }", 
and Z ; ix^ vowel is then suppressed, as n in linger, if 
the syllable may be thus divided, li-mjer — 

Ajala, hunger. 

No consonant can end a word except J/, Ng\ jY. 

In Swahili many words end with two vowels. In 
many instances a consonant has been dropped ; in 
such words in the Sagalla dialect these consonants 
are restored. 





SWAHILI. 


SAGALLA. 


Hear 


siMa 


sikila. 


Nose 
Open 
Run 


jma 
fungua 
kwihia 


mhula. 
fmigula 
kimbila. 


Bring up 
To-day 


lea 

leo . 


lela. 
lelo. 



THE ACCENT. 

The accent is invariably on the last syllable but 
one. 

When two vowels come together they are usually 
pronounced as close vowels, in which case the accent 
is thrown back to the first of these vowels, as ku-leiUiy 
to dun. 

When a suffix is used the accent is moved so as to 
be on the last syllable but one. 

There are but few monosyllabic words in the Sagalla 
dialect. 

PARTS OF SPEECH, ETC. 

Thore are eight parts of speech in the Sagalla 
dinlect : — 



8 ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE. 

I. The Noun or Substantive. — These are generally 
simple roots to which prefixes are added to denote 
the number and class to which they belong, as mu- 
ndUf a man ; wa-nduj men. 

II. Tde Adjective. — Regular adjectives are gener- 
ally simple roots made to agree with their nouns 
by prefixing the appropriate initials, which denote 
number and class, as wa-tidu worbwaa, great men. 

III. The Pronoun. — Pronouns are generally ex- 
pressed — first, by use of particles prefixed to the verb, 
as, ita-gala, I go ; second, by use of particles having 
their appropriate prefixes, as wa-ndu wa-iigUf my men ; 
third, by a special form which can take no prefix, 
as mil J I. 

lY. The Yerb. — The infinitive, from which all 
the other parts of the verb are formed, contains the 
root and -a suffixed, and the syllable ku- prefixed, as 
kvr(jal-a. Ku' is the sign of the infinitive, gal- root of 
the verb, -a the stem — to go. 

Y. The Adverb. — There are not many pure adverbs 
in the Sagalla dialect. They are formed chiefly by 
the aid of substantives, adjectives, and verbs. 

YI. Prepositions. — These are few in number. 
They are generally expressed by the applied form of 
the verb, as, hurliadUa^ to seek for ; kurrv^irat to 
cook for. 

YII. Conjunctions. — These also are few in 
number. They are often expressed by ka prefixed to 
the verb — ni-kcMti-uza^ and I told him. 

YIII. Interjections. — These are many, but, as in 
all languages, they can be pronounced much more 
easily than written, they are therefore better learnt 
by ear than by eye. 

contractions. 
When two vowels come together one is ^ often 
absorbed by the other — u before o becomes wo^ u before 



8AGALLA DIALECT. \) 

a becomes wa, u before i becomes wiy a before o 
becomes o, 

SUBSTANTIVES. 

The substantives of tte Sagalla dialect may be 
divided into nine clashes. 

There is no special form of the substantive to ex- 
press gender ; but when it is required, the adjectives 
-lunie, luale, -ke^ female, are used in connection with 
the substantive. 

There are two numbers, singular and plural. These 
are generally distinguished by their initial prefix, as 
ki-ttdif a mortar ; vi-tuli, mortars. 

These initial forms govern all the prefixes of 
adjectives, pronouns, and verbs, as — 

> 

Ki-tvli ki-bwaa, a large mortar. 
Vituli va-ngu, my mortars. 

Kirtuli cha-wasa, the mortar is bad. 

The class to which a substantive belongs is deter- 
mined (a) by its initial prefix, (b) by whether it 
denotes an animate being or not, (c) by whether it 
takes a prefix to form the plural or not. 

The nominative case and the accusative case of 
substantives are always the same, but they can 
generally be determined by the context. 

The possessive case is expressed by the use of the 
possessive pronoun or of the preposition -a, of, as 
nyuniha zaiiyu, my houses ; mjumha ya viyeni^ the 
house of the stranger. 

Other relations between nouns are sometimes 
expressed by what is called the applied fonn of the 
verb and by the use of prepositions, as, A^ifc-m-^i?//*- /a 
vihua yake, to cultivate his garden for him ; ku-vi- 
twali-la, to take to him. 

The number of those nouns (Class III.) which do 
Dot change to form their plural \& ^v&\*\\i^Ni\^'^^ V^ 



10 ELEMKXTARY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE. 

the prefix of the pronouns, adjectives, or verbs 
used in connection with them, as, mfomhe zanguy 
my cattle. The za here denotes that the word 
ngonde is plural. 

Clabs I. — Those nouns beginning with 7/1-, ?/m-, or 
mw-t and denote living beings, make their plural by 
changing m-, etc. into wa-. The different forms of the 
pi*ofix represent the syllable qiiu-, which is the pretix 
liKwt generally used. 

Minidtfy a man ; Watidu, men. 

MttUHf^ey a slave ; Wasunye, slaves. 

«1/f'Ar» //(*,♦ a young woman; Wachanaj young women. 

Mtt^wttnaf a young man ; Watawanaj young men. 

*rht» Mihgular prefix 7nu- before a vowel changes the 
♦♦ luti» ♦^'-i HH viuiti, a tree, becomes mwiti. 

\s\w\\ <» of tl.e plural t^a- comes before another -as 
ihoY ivhuimt coalesce and are hardly distinguishable, 
an 

*V«H»*»(Wlv, a chiUi ; Waanake, children. 
\Vi^**u «♦- oomt»H before e- or ^- it is changed into 

.y«v/*, wolf ; Wmj selves. 

i*L.\!4>i II, -Nouns beginning with m-, mu-, mw-, 
which vU> uot donoto animate beings. These make 
tiii>iv pluml by ohanging 7/i-, etc. into mi-. When -i- of 
Nil ooui^vH bof(UV 0- or t- it changes into long e- or i-. 

Mloubi>y a mouth ; Milonw, mouths. 

Myandijk, a gaxHleu ; Migunda, gardens. 

Mwiti, a tvixd ; M'Ui trees. 

il/wAtj^i, the moon ; Mezi, moons. 

Mioiuy a thorn ; Mia, thorns. 

Mwcta, a river ; J^Jeta rivers. 

I'lvhh III.— Those which do not change to form 
iJw/r plural Tlnd ohamcteristic letter of this class is 



SAGALLA DIALECT. 



11 



n-. It is the cause of many apparent irregularities ; 
it is always followed by another consonant : n- befoi-e 
r, I, becomes nd- ; before clia, n- becomes vj- ; before 
6-, 11' becomes m-. 



Nyumha, a house ; 
Mhuzit a goat ; 
Ngila, a path ; 
Mbeyu, a seed ; 
Nguku, a fowl ; 



Nyuitiha, hous;es. 
Mbuzi, goats. 
Nyila, patlis. 
Mbeyu, see? Is. 
Nguku^ fowls. 
Ngunde, beans. 



Ngunde, a bean ; 

Class IV. — Those which take the prefixes ki-, cha-, 
cho', chu' in the singular. They make their plural by 
changing the singular prefix into vi-, vor, vo-, and mc-, 
as — 



Kituli, a mortar ; 
Kitasi, a bag ; 
Ckala, a finger ; 
CharOf a caravan ; 
Chongo, a head ; 
Chunia, iron ; 



Vituli, mortars. 
Vitasif bags. 
Vala, fingers. 
Varo, caravans. 
VongOj heads. 
Vunia, irons. 



Note. — Kisikilo, an ear, makes Masikilo, ears. 

Class V. — All nouns which make their plurals by 
prefixing the syllable nia- may be placed in tliis 
class. These are numerous, {a) Nouns iu /- make 
their plural by dropping the /- and prefixing the 
syllable mor. 



Iwano, an arrow ; 
Ijua, the sun ; 
IjilOf a bundle ; 
Ifufu, a hump ; 
Ije'go, a tooth ; 
rge7nbe, a hoe ; 
Iziso, an eye ; 



Mawano, arrows. 
Majua, suns. 
MajilOf bundles. 
Mafvfuy humps. 
Maje^gOy teeth. 
Ma^gembey hoes. 
Meso, eyes. 



(b) Those which form their plural by prefixing 
/?ia- to the singular, as — 



12 ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE. 

Dau, a bag ; Madau, bags. 

Gafa, a beard ; Magqfay beards. 

lladiy a desire ; MaJwdi, desires. 

Nyasi, grass ; Manyasi, grasses. 

Leu, food ; Maleu, foods. 

(c) Nouns in w, which make their plurals by 
changing u- into wa-, as — 

Ufwa, an inheritance ; Mafiva, inheritances. 

IJkongo, sickness ; Makongo, sicknesses. 

Uyanga, medicine ; Maganga, medicines. 

UengUi a cloud ; Maengu, clouds. 

Ulunie, courage ; Malunie, courage. 

{d) Nouns which prefix ma-, and retain the w-, as — 

Ullli, a bed; Maulili, beds. 

Ushuy a face ; 3faushu, faces. 

Uta, a bow ; Mauta, bows. 

Ukiy honey ; Mauki, honeys. 

(e) Those nouns which use ma- or ?7ie- for both 
singular and plural, as^ 

Mazia, milk; Mavuta, butter; Meji^ water. 

Class VI. — All nouns in lu-. These form their 
plurals by changing lu- into nyu-, as — 

Lvmihoy a song ; Nyumho, songs. 

Lwaio, sole (of foot) ; Nywaio, feet. 

Lwaka, a voice ; Nywdka, voices. 

Luzi, thread ; Nyuzi, threads. 

Class VII. — Nouns which (a) take ka- in the sin- 
gular, and make their plural by changing ka- into vl-. 
(6) Those which take tu- in the singular, and make 
their plural by changing tu- into m-, 

Kanyumha, a little house ; Vinyumba, little houses. 
Tunguku, a little fowl ; Vinguku, little fowls. 
T'umwana, a little child ; Vi^oanay little children. 



8AGALLA DIALECT. 13 

These are all diminutives. Any noun may be 
brought into this class. 

Class VIII.— r-The word aindu\ This word requires 
kio- prefixing to all pronouns, adjectives, and verbs 
used in connection with it. 

Andu hwangu, my place. 

Andu kwaloli, a nice place. 

Andu kuzinia, another place. 

Class IX. — ^The infinitive of verbs used as substan- 
tives. These when so used answer to the English 
participle in mg. It requires the syllable ku- 
prefixing to all words used in connection with it. 
The plural is the same as the singular. 

Kuvala kwake, his bearing. 

Kugora kwako, your talking. 

Kulwana kivao, their fighting. 

LOCATION. 

All nouns may be put into what is called the 
locative case, by changing the final vowel -a into e- 
and adding -m, as — 

Nyumhay a house ; Nyumheni, in the house. 
Mbua, a garden ; Mbtteni, in the garden. 
Boro, a cattle-fold ; Boroni, in the cattle-fold. 

Pronouns used in connection with the locative case 
take the prefix kwa-, as — 

Nyuvibeni kwangu, in my house. 

Ngileni kwake, in his way. 

Chongoni kioetu, in our heads. 

ADJECTIVES. 

Adjectives follow the substantive they agree with. 
Regular adjectives are made to agree with their 
substantives by prefixing to ftiein. N;Xi^ \\\\\}ss\ ^-^'^S^^ 



14 KLEXIENTART INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE. 

peculiar to the class of noun they are required to 
agree with, as — 

Mwiti mlele, a tall tree. 

3Iiti niilele, tall trees. 

There are two kinds of regular adjectives — 
(a) Those which take their prefixes like the noun ; 
{h) those which have a peculiar prefix of their own, 
as — 

Mdu mchache, a little man. 

Wandu wachacM, little men. 

Mdu waloli, . a nice man. 

Wandu loaloUy nice men. 

Kituli kihwaa, a large mortar. 

Kitvli chaloli, a nice mortar. 

Adjectives of any class, when used in connection 
with substantives denoting living beings, may tak« 
the prefix propel' to the first class of substantives. 

Mhuzi nichache, a little goat. 

Mbuzi wachache, little goats. 

Ng'ornbe inrifu^ a fat cow. 

It is most common to use prefixes of the class to 
which the substantive belongs, though it denotes a 
living being. 

Kamwana kaloli, a beautiful little child. 
Mbuzi ycdoli, a fine goat. 

The following is a table of prefixes required by 
adjectives when used in connection with the different 
classes and numbers of substantives. 



)las€ 


; I. 


Sing. 


m- and niU' 


Plur. 


voa- 




II. 


>» 


war 

m- and mu- 




wa- 
mi- 




»» 
III. 




'gtva- 
iiir and n- 




ya- 

m- and n- 


^f 


99 


99 


yor 




ZOr 



p^ 



8AGALLA DIALECT. 



15 



C 



ass IV. Sing. Id- 



>» 



V. 

>> 
VI. 

»» 

VII. 

VIJI. 
IX. 



»> 

»> 
>» 



cliOr 

l- 

lya- 

lu- 

Iwa- 

ha- and tu- 

ka- and ta- 

kwa- 

ku- and kwa- 



Plur. m- 
va- 

TWrt- 

'ga- 

nya- 

nywa- 

vi- 

va- 

f} 

19 



The following table shows how the regular adjectives 
are used : — 



Class I. 



99 

y* 

99 



» 
>> 

II. 
III. 

99 

ly. 

V. 

)) 

VJ. 

ff 



Sing. 
Plur. 
Sing. 
Plur. 
Sing. 
Plur. 
Sing. 
Plur. 
Sing. 
Plur. 
Sing. 
Plur. 
Sing. 
Plur. 
Sing. 
Plur. 
Sing. 
Plur. 
Sing. 
Plur. 
Sing. 
Plur. 
Sing. 
Piur. 



Mdu mhwaa, 
Wandu wabwaa, 
Mdu waloli, 
Wandu walol% 
Mwiti mbwaa, 
Miti mibwaa, 
Mwiti 'gwalolij 
Miti yaloliy 
Nyu'inha mhwaa, 
Nyumha mhwaa. 
Nyuinha yaloli^ 
Nyumha zaloll, 
Nyumha njache, 
Nyumha njache, 
Kituli kihwaa, 
Vituli vibwaa, 
Kituli chaloliy 
Vituli valolif 
Iwano ihwaa, 



a great man. 
great men. 
a good man. 
good men. 
a groat tree, 
groat trees, 
a good tree, 
good trees, 
a great house, 
great houses, 
a good house, 
good houses, 
a small house, 
small houses. 
a great mortar, 
great mortars. 
a good mortar, 
good mortars. 
a great arrow. 



Mawano viabwaa, great arrows. 
Iwano lyaloliy a good arrow. \ 

Mawano 'galoliy good arrows. 
Lwaka lubwaa, a great voice. 
Nyioaka n2/ubw5tta, ^\:^^\j ^Qvvi.^'e»* 



16 ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE. 

Class YI. Sing. Lwmho IwaloU, a good song. 

„ Plur. Nyumho nywaloli, good songs. 

VII. Sing. Kanyuviha kachaclie, a little house. 

Plur. Vinyumba vichacke, little houses. 

Sing. Tunyumha tuchache, a little house. 

Plur. Vinyumba vichache, little houses. 

Sing. Kanyuniba haloli, 



1 



>> 



>> 



>> 



>> 



>» 






»> 



>> 



>> 



y» 



>j 



Tunyumha tuloli, 



„ VIII. 






„ Andu kubwaa, 

Plur. Aoidu kubwaa^ 

Sing. Andu kwaloli, 

Plur. Andu kwaloli^ 

IX. Sing. Kuiinba kubwa>a, 

Plur. Kuimba kuhwaa, 

Sing. Kuimba kwaloli, 

Plur. Kuimba kwaloli, 



)> 



>> 



>> 



>> 



>) 



a good little 

house. 
a good little 

house, 
a great place, 
great places, 
a good place, 
good places, 
great singing, 
great singings, 
good singing. 



good singings. 

Adjectives used in connection with nouns of Class 
V. (b) require the same initial prefix in the singular 
as that used with nouns of Class III. singular — 
Dau mbioaa, a great bag ; 2)a?/ yaloliy a good bag. 

Adjectives u«ed in connection 'with nouns of Class 
Y. (c) and {d) require the same initial prefix in the 
singular as that used with nouns of Class II. singular 
— Ulili mbwaa, a great bed ; [/lili ^gwaloli, a good bed. 

The word -ose, all, or the whole, take the same 
prefix as -loliy as — 



Class 



if 



I. Sing. 3fdu wose, 
Plur. Wandu wose, 
II. Sing. Mwiti ^gwose, 
„ Plur. Miti yose, 
III. Sing. Nyumbayoae, 
„ Plur. Nyumba zoae, 
lY. Sing. Kituli chose, 
„ plur. Vituli vose, 



?> 



the whole man. 

all men. 

the whole tree. 

all trees. 

the whole house. 

all houses. 

the whole mortar. 

all mortars. 






SAGALLA DIALECT. 17 

Class V. Sing. Iwano lyose, the whole arrow. 
„ „ Plur. Mawano 'goae, all ari'ows. 

„ YI. Sing. Lwaka Iwose, the whole voice. 
„ „ Plur. NywaJcanywose, all voices. 

„ VII. Sing. Kanyumha kose, the whole little 

house. 
„ „ „ Tunyumba toae, the whole little 

house. 
„ Plur. Vinyumha vose, all little houses. 
YIII. Sing. Andu kose, the whole place. 

„ „ Plur. Andu kose, all places. 

,, IX. Sing. Kuimha kose, the whole singing. 
„ „ Plur. Kuimha kose, all singing. 

The word west, having, or with, may take the same 
prefixes as -ose, Bab it is often used without any 
prefix whatever, as — 

Mdu wesi ng*ombe, a ma,n having cattle. 

The following table shows the forms taken by 
-mojii, one, and -ingi, many, as — 

Class I. Sing. Mdu mmoju, one man. 

„ Plur. Wcmdu wengi, many men. 

II. Sing. Mwiti ^gumoju, one tree. 

Plur. Miti mingi, many trees. 

III. Sing. Nyumha tnojtf,, one house. 

„ Plur. Nyumha nyingi, many houses. 

„ IV. Sing. Kituii kimoju, one moiijar. 

„ Plur. Vituli vingi, many mortars. 

V. Sing. Iwano imoju, one arrow. 

„ Plur. Mawano mengi, many arrows. 

„ VI. Sing. Lwaka lumoju, one voice. 

„ Plur. Nwaka nywingi, many voices. 

„ VII. Sing. Kanyumha kanioju, one little house. 
„ „ Tunywmha tumoju, one little house. 

„ Plur. Vinyumha vingi^ ma.\i^ \L\i0^a 






'9 



If. 



( ■ 



.'Mff 
• ■ • - \ 



«. :::ari 



c:hov luoii. 
anoilior :rvt'. 

■ '<•. iinotlwv \\K\>K 
jriior hvnisos. 
a not Ii or 

movtiw. 
other movtars. 
Auothev arrow. 
.., other arrows, 
a nor her voice. 
. Ml. other voices. 
.,■ :u, iUiotJier Jittj(. 

liouse. 
.. ■■*/. anothtr JfttJe 
hoii.se. 
• ■ . other JittJo 
Ijouses. 
•'''^»I^»tU' place, 
oilier places. 
lisvMher nuur, 

ill or. 

o o • 

'-•^ ■ 'A\;;ulMr a(ij(^(.- 
■ 'f ^^ ocher words 



■ >. 



SAOALLA DIALECT. 19 

I. The place of the adjective is supplied by the use 
of the verb in the subjunctive mood, as — 

Msenge ^gugoloksj the straight stick. 
Msenge ^gwgomeke^ the bent stick. 
Sangu ijvle, the full water jar. 

II. By the verb in the past tense, as — 

Mundu wafwUe, the dead man. 
Nguo ielUe^ the clean cloth. 

III. By a substantive connected with the noun, 
qualified by the preposition -a, of, as — 

Mundu wa izisOy a covetous man. 

Mundu wa mutu, a mad man. 

Meji *ga munyUj salt water. 

Mundu wafvlo, a true man. 

IV. By the use of the word -ii7««i, as — 

A west vJcongo, a sick man. 

Awesi ndigi^ a strong man. 

Ckitved ikwi, a dirty (thing). 

V. By a simple assertion. 

(a) The verb ** <o be" followed by na and the 
substantive, as — 

Uo na tUachu, you are wise. 

Weo na ukongOy they are sick. 

(b) The appropriate particle prefixed to the adjective, 
as — 

Mabemba *gawasa, the Indian corn is bad. 
Iwano lyauoasaj the arrow is bad. 

(c) The appropriate particle prefixed to twi, and 
followed by the adjective. In this case the final vowel 
changes into e or t, as — 

Mwiti ^gwanawasiy the tree is b«A. 

C/ia^ c/ianawaaiy tlie fi^ug^er \s>\i^^. i 



20 ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE. 

(c^) The appropriate particle prefixed to kalla rta, 
as — 

Wakalla na ukongo, they are sick. 
TakaUa na ulachu, we are wise. 

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. 

The comparison of adjectives is expressed — 1. By 
a simple statement, as — mundu uyu waloli ela ulya 
wanawasij this man is good, but that (man) is bad. 

2. By the use of the present tense of the verbs kuiaa 
and huchwmha^ to surpass, as — Mdu uyu waloli ela 
ulya waiaa, this man is good, but that (man) is - 
better ; Mdu uyu mlele ela ulya wachumha, this man 
is tall, but that (man) is taller. 

3. By the words haha and bora, as — Baha uyu^ this 
(man) is better; Bora ulya, that (man) is better. 

4. By the word ndigiy as — Awa loadea kirani ela 
walya wadea kirani na ndigi, these (men) do well, but 
those do better. 

The superlative degree is expressed by -ose and 
kuisile, as — 

iVa ndigi zose, with all strength. 
Waisile wandu wose, he surpasses all men. 
Mundu loaisile ni uyu, this is the best man. 
^g'ombe zake zaisile kuvala, his cattle bear the 
best. 

NUMERALS. 

The following are the cardinal numbers : — 

1. Mosi. 

2. Pili, 

3. Tatu, 

4. Ine, 

5. Sano. 

6. I'andatu, 

7. Mfungate, 

8. Nane» 



8AGALLA DIALBCT. 21 

9. Ikenda, 

10. Ikumi, 

11. Ikumi na nwju. 

12. „ „ 7)ibili, 

13. ,, ,, tatu, 

■■•fr. II yj tfTlSm 

15. „ „ «ano. 

16. „ „ ndandatu. 

17. „ ,, mf ungate. 

18. „ ,, nane, 

19. „ „ ikenda, 

20. Mirongo miUi, 

21. „ ,, Tia 77iq/9i. 

22. „ „ „ m6i/i. 

23. „ „ „ tatu. 

24. „ „ „ ine. 

25. „ „ „ sano, 

26. „ ,, „ ndandatu. 

27. „ ,, „ m/ungate. 

28. „ „ „ na7ie. 

29. „ „ „ ikenda. 

30. Mirongo mitatu. 



31, 



„ ,, Tia moju. 



32. „ „ ,, mWi. 

33. „ „ „ tatu. 

34. „ „ „ me. 

35. „ „ „ sano. 

36. „ „ „ ndandatu. 

37. „ „ „ mfungate. 

38. „ I, ,, nane. 

39. „ „ „ ikenda. 

40. Mirongo mine. 
50. „ misano. 
60. „ mitandatu. 
70. „ mj ungate. 
80. „ minar?6. 
90. , „ A»7ida. 



22 ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE. 

100, Fgana. 

, 101. Vyana na imoju. 

110. „ „ ikumi, 

120. „ ,, mirongo miili, 

130. „ „ „ mitatu, 

140. ,, „ „ mine. 

150. „ J, y, niisano. 

200. M(C(jana m tile. 

260. „ „ 7ia miranyi mUano. 

555. „ 7)ia8ano na y, „ na sano. 

1000. „ • ikumi. 

All numerals except 7)\f ungate ikenda and ikumi, 
may take the appropriate prefix agreeing witli the 
noun witli which thoy are used. 

Miti ikumi na miaano^ fifteen trees. 

NiiniberH beyond a hundred are seldom used by the 
nativ(»8. 

Tiie nuinl)er always follows the substantive with 
which it is connected. 

Mdu mmoju, one man. 

WanJn vmsanOf five men. 
I 'ituli rinanef eight mortars. 

10 is generally expressed by the word a/wa, as — 
Mbuzi a/wUf ten goats. 1 and 2 are generally 
oxpressoii by the third set of demonstrative pronouns, 
as — Afiiu nyi)f one man; JUbuzi izo, two goats. (See 
p. U.) 

When a noun qualified by a number takes an 
adjuctive, the numbt^r comes last, as — 

VittUi valo'i risimOf five tine mortars. 

Wandu ivabivaa wanane, eight fine men. 

The ordinal numbers are expressed by the use of 
the variable particle -a — 

Mundu vxk hamhiriy the first man. 
Mwiti (/wa kasano, the fifth tree. 



SAGALLA DIALECT. 



23 



The ordinal numbers are as follows : — 



First 


-a hambiri. 


Second 


ra kaili. 


Third 


-a katatu. 


Fourth 


-akane. 


Fifth 


-a kasaiio. 


Sixth 


-a katandatu. 


Seventh 


-a mfungate. 


Eighth 


-a kaiiane. 


Ninth 


-a ikenda. 


Tenth 


-a ikurrn. 


Tiast 


-a mbale, etc. 



The table on following page will show the forms 
numbers take when used in connection with sub- 
stantives. 



ADVERBIAL NUMBERS. 



These are chiefly expressed by prefixing ka- to the 
cardinals. 

The following table will show how they are formed : 



Once 
Twice 


kamoju, 
kaili. 


Three times 


katatu. 


Four „ 


kane. 


Five „ 


kaaano. 


Six 


katandatu, 


Seven „ 
Eight „ 
Nine ,, 


mfungate, 

kanane. 

ikenda. 


Ten „ 


iku/mi. 


How many times 1 
Often 


kalinga ? 
Iciugi, 



QQ 



X 



05 ' r 

w , '^ 

> ! 

H 

I/; 

OJ 

pj i 

o I 

55 : 



^ .§. 



:3 ^ 



^1 



i 



^ 
5M 



?s S R 



8 S 

•^ S 









^ 2 

^^5 






1 1 



^/ 



O 



00 

> 

Eh 
< 

CO 
QQ 



^ 

P 
^ 
^ 




8 



S» '-* ^ 
it t^ tS 



•«* 



•S 'S ^ 
it ^ tS 



I^ S ><; 1^ 



;3 



1 •** ^ 

>s 'O 'e 
!< ^ ^ 



►q c§ <i 



rl 



ll 



*i "*» Q S 6 5J 

•^ ^ ^ "^ "^ ^ 



i' I 
§1 






« 






2 

2^ i 



1 §^ I 



•«» 



!^ ix tx ^ ti. ^ 



Is 



Je; 1^ t^ ^ ^ ;^ 



:i 



I 



• i^ *i^ •e3 *ed 1^^ 

»*q ^q ^q »«^ t^ 1^ 



••» 






JO 



I 5 I § 

^ ^ i 1 1 1 



§1 






»4i fS 

S "^ 



l^ll 




SAGALLA DIALECT. 25 

PKONOUNS. 

PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 

The full forms of the personal pronoun are as 
follows ; — 

I, Irni ; We, lai. 

Thou, Uwe ; You, Inyu, 

He or she, lye ; They Wao or waoe. 

It or ^y, when referring to inanimate objects, are 
expressed by special prefixes. 

The objective case of the personal pronoun is the 
same as the subjective case. 

The possessive case is expressed — 

(a) By use of possessive pronouns, as — 

Iwano lyomgu, my arrow. 
Ng^omhe zake, his cattle. 

Kituli chaoy their mortar. 

(h) By the use of the preposition -a, of, as — - 

Mbvai za wandu, the people's goats. 
Ada za mzao, their customs. 

The possessive pronoun is formed by prefixing the 
preposition -a to a special form of the personal 
pronoun, as — 

-a-Tiguy mine. -e-tu, ours. 

-a-ko, thine. -e-nu, yours. 

-Orke, his, her, or its. -a-, or -oe, theirs. 

The preposition na^ "end" or ** with," is often 
prefixed to a shortened form of the personal pronoun 
to express " and " or " with " me, you, him, etc. 

Nornii, and or with me ; Nasi, and or with us. 
Norwe, „ „ thee; Nainyuy „ „ you. 

Na-ye, or iye, „ him ; NaOj „ „ them. 

Another form is also used to express the pronoun in 
the subjective case, as^ — 



26 ELEMEXTART INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANOUAGE. 

Xa-mo8e, and I ; Na-tose or na-sose, and we. 

XorO^e, „ thou ; Normwose, „ you. 

Xa-eae^ „ he, she or it, Na-woae, „ they. 

The prefixes used in conjugating the verb to mark 
the subjective case of the personal pronoun are as 
follows : — 

Ni-y na-, I ; Ti-, to-, we. 

U'y w-y thou ; Mvr, mwa-, you. 

U-, W'f Or, he, she ; We-y wchy they. 

These denote animate beings only. 
The objective forms of the personal pronoun 
denoting animate beings are as follows : — 

-ni-y -71-, me ; -ti-y us. 

-ku-y thee ; ^mu-y you. 

-7n-y him, her; -wa-, them. 

The following prefixes are used in connection with 
words expressing inanimate things to denote the 
personal pronoun ; — 

Subjective Case. Objective Case. 

Class. iSing, Plur, Sing. Plur, 

II. 'Gu-,'gwa-. I, ya-. 'Gu-. I-. 

III. I-, ya-. Zi-, za-. I-. Zi-. 

IV. Chi-, cha-. Vi-, va-. Chi-. Vi-. 
V. Lyi-, lya-. ^Ge-, 'ga-. Lyi-. 'Ga-. 

YI. Lu-, Iwa-. Zi-, za-. Lu-. Zi-. 

VII. Ke-, ka-. Ve-, va-. Ka-. Vi-. 

Te-, tu-. Ye-, va-. Ka-. Vi-. 

VIII. Ku-, kwa-. Ku-, kwa-. Ku-. Ku-. 

IX. Ku-. Ku. Ku-. Ku-. 

The subjective and objective cases of Class V. (b) 
take the same form for their singular as those of Class 
III. singular. 

The subjective and objective cases of Class V. (c) 
and (d) take the same form for their singular as those 
of Class II. singular. 



8AGALLA. DIALECT. 2< 

The following table shows the use of the objective 
prefixes : — 

Class 1. Wa-nirona, he sees me. 

Wchni-a^iaia, he loves me. 

Wa kvroiiay he sees you. 

Wa-kushaia, he loves you. 

WorTrnJO-onaf he sees him. 

Wa-rnshaia^ he loves him. 

Wa-ti-onay he sees us. 

Worti-shaiay he loves us. 

Wa-mu-oiiay he sees you. 

Wa-rnu-almia, he loves you. 

Worwci-ona, he sees them. 

Wa-worsliaia, he loves them. 
„ II. H^a-'^wo7/a, he sees it (7/i^ww(ia, a garden). 

Wor'gu-ahaiaf he loves it. 

Wa-i-ona, he sees them (piigunda, 

gardens.) 

Wori-ahaia, he loves them. 
„ III. Wori-ona, he sees it {nyumba, a house). 

Wct-i-shaiay he loves it. 

IVa-zi'Onaf he sees them {nyuniba, 

houses). 

Wa-zi-sliaia, he loves them. 
,, IV. Wa-chi'Ona, he sees it {kituli, a mortal). 

Worchi-aham, he loves it. 

Wa-vi-cnia, he sees them (vitiUi, mortars). 

Wa-vi-shaia, he loves them. 
„ V. Wa-li/i-07ia, he sees it (igertibey a hoe). 

Worlyi-shaia, he loves it. 

Tr<3k'^a-07ia, he sees them (magemhe, hoes). 

Wor^ga-shaia, he loves them. 
„ VI. Worlvrona, he sees it {lumho, a song). 

Wa-lu-shaia, he loves it. 

Wa-nyu-ona^ he sees them (nyumbo, 



28 ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION T^O TAITA LANGUAGE. 

Class VII. Wa-korona, he sees it (kanyumba, a little 

house). 
Wa-korshaia, he loves it. 
„ Wa-vi-ona, he sees them {vinyumha, little 

houses). 
Worvi-shaia, he loves them. 
„ VIII. Wa-kvronaf he sees it {andu, a place). 
Wa-ku-a/iaia, he loves it. 
Wa-knrona, he sees them (andu, places). 
Wa-kurshaia, he loves them. 
,, IX. Wa-ku-ona, he sees it {kuimha, a sing- 

iog.) 
Workursliaia, he loves it. 

Wa kvrwia, he sees them {kuimha, sing- 
ing). 
Wa-ku-ahaiay he loves them. 

In all cases the first syllable is the subject of the 
verb. The syllable representing the object always 
immediately precedes the verb, as — 

Wa-f he ; ni-, me ; ona, sees. He me sees. 
Tor, we ; ^gu-, it {m^gunda, a garden) ; gula, buy. 
We it buy. 

When emphasis is required the full form of the 
personal pronoun may be used together with the 
proper subjective and objective prefixes, as — 

Imi norshaia, I do love. 

Uwe worni-ahaia, You do love me. 

The objective prefix is always used where in 
English the objective is expressed by a pronoau, 
as — 

Na-m-uza, I tell him. 

Na-chi-hoesa, I repair i\ 




8AGALLA DIALECT. 29 

The objective prefix is used where in English the 
definite article is used, as — 

Na-^gu-tenia mwi'ti, I cut the tree. 
Ni'Zi'lisa ng*<ynibe, I will tend the cattle. 
Nor^gorteka meji, I have drawn the water. 

The indefinite article is denoted by the omission of 
the objective prefix, as — 

NorUisa nya/mandu^ I shot an animal. 
Ta-gula nibuzi. We buy a goat. 

Na-ona mundu, I see a man. 

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 

The possessive pronoun always follows immediately 
after the thing possessed, it varies according to the 
number and class — 

Mdu wangu, my man. 

KitvZi ch&iiu, your mortar. 

The unvarying parts of the possessive pronoun are 
as follows : — - 

-angu, my ; -etu, our. 

-ako, thy ; -enuy your. 

-ake, his, her, or its ; -aOj or -aoe, their. 

The words -ake and -ao are used for all classes of 
substantives. 

The above forms may be used as enclitics with such 
words as 

Mwanangii,, my child. 

WokwetUf our brothers or sisters. 

Mktvako, your wife. 

The initial letters of the possessive pronoun 
proper to each class and number of substantives are 
as follows ; — 



30 ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE. 



ilass I. 


Sing, 


W-, 


P^«r. 


W-. 


II. 


»> 


'GW; 


)» 


Y-. 


III. 


» 


Y-, 


>» 


Z-. 


IV. 


» 


Ch-, 


»> 


V-. 


V. 


>> 


Ly-, 


>> 


'G. 


VI. 


>» 


Lu-, 


)) 


Z. 


„ VII. 


» 


K-, 


>> 


V. 




» 


T-, 


>» 


V-. 


„ VIII. 


>> 


Kw-, 


>> 


K VV-. 


IX. 


» 


Kw-, 


» 


Kw-. 



When the substantive is put into the locative case, 
its pronoun requires a special form, as — 

Kitunduni kwangu, in my store. 
Ngoloni kvcangu^ in my heart. 

Chongoni kwake, in his head. 

The following table will show how the various 
forms of the possessive pronoun are used : — 



CLASS. 



I. Mundu^^y^ wangu, wakOy wake, wetu, wenu, 
wao. 

Wanda ",'' wangu ^ wako, wake, wetu, wenUj 
wao, 

II. Mvnti*^" 'g wangu J ^gwako, 'gwake, ^gwetu, 





'gwenu, 'gwao, 
Miti "," yangu, 


yako. 


yoke, 


yetu, 


Ini. 


yenuy yao, 
N'yumha "/' yangu^ 


yako. 


yoke. 


yetUj 


• 


yenu, yao, 
N'yvmha^^" zangu. 


zako, 


zake, 


zetu. 


IV. 


zenu, zao, 
^itidi "," cliangu, 

chenu, chao. 
Vitnli^',** vangu, 


clmkoy 
vako, 


cJiake, 
vake, 


chetu, 
vetu, 


V. 


venu, vao, 
J'wano'','' lyanguy 


lyako, 


lyake, 


lyetu, 



l2/e9iu, lyao. 



SAGALLA DIALECT. ^ 31 

CLASS. 

V. Mawano**" 'gangu^ 'gako, 'gake, 'getu, 
^genu, ^gao, 
VI. Lumbo^\^' IwangUf Iwako, I wake, hvetUj 
IwenUj Iwao, 
Nyumho "," nywangu, nywako, nywake; nywetu, 
nywenu, nywao, 
VII. Kanyumha **," kangu, kako, kake, ketu, 
kenu, kao, 
Vinyumha "/* vangu, vako, vake, vetu, 
venu, vao. 
VIII. Andu^^^^ kwangu, kwako, kwake, kwetu, 

kwenu, kwao, 
IX. Kuimha^^f^ kwanguj kwako, kwake, kwetu, 
kwenu, kwao. 

Locative form — Nyuwibem^^y^ kwangUi kwako, kwake, 
kwetu, kvjenu, kwao. 

When emphasis is required the word -en, self, (w* 
own, is used, as — 

Iwano lyangu lyen, my own arrow. 

M'gunda 'gwangu gwen, my own garden. 
Nywniba zetu zen, our own houses. 

The owner of a thing is denoted by use of the 
preposition -a, of, which takes the initial letter proper 
to the class and number of the substantives with 
which it is connected — 

Ngovfie ya Mzungu, the European's house. 

Tgemhe lya mkwangu, my wife's hoe. 

Mvori ^gwa Masai, the Masai's path, 

Ng^onihe za mzvri, the chief's cattle. 

The personal pronoun is often used where in Eng- 
lish the possessive pronoun is implied — 

Wam-vunja magulu, they broke his legs. 
Worhu-pasa chala^ they cwt o^^wxx ^ws^x . 

Ti-m-/unga mikmio, ^Ne ^SW^ \!\<b\>c^^\ssc£A'^» 



^2 ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE. 

The initial prefix to the preposition -a is the same 
as that of the possessive pronoun, thus : — 



Class I. Sing. Wa, Plur. Wa. 




II. „ 'Gwa, „ Ya. 


• 


III. „ Ya, „ Za. 




IV. „ Caa, ,, Va. 




V. „ Lya, „ 'Ga. 




VI. „ Lwa, „ Nwa. 




VII. „ Ka, „ Va. 




VIII. „ Xwa, ' „ Kwa. 




IX. „ Kwa, „ Kwa. 


When 


speaking of home, the singular hwanguy my 


home, is 


used, and mzetu, plural, our home. 



REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. 

The reflexive pronoun is expressed by the use of the 
following forms : — 

1. By the use of the syllable -ku-. This syllable 
takes the place of the objective prefix, and imme- 
diately precedes the verb, as — 

Wa-ku Vila mavuta, they oil themselves. 

The words mwen, self, and wen, selves, arc often 
added after the verb to denote a more definite 
reflexive, as — 

Na-kulasa mwen, I hit myself. 

Wa-kurtona mwen, he cuts himself. 

Wa-ku emba wen, they deceive themselves. 

2. By the use of the word chongo, head, ind ngolo, 
heart, as — 

CJiongo changu, myself. 

^golo yetu, ourselves. 

Nwnmnya ngolo yangu, I know myself. 

3. By the use of the word -m, self. This takes the 
>llowing forms to agree with the several classes and 
^^J^abers of substantives ; — 



SAGALLA DIALECT. 33 

Class I. Mundu mwen, the man himself. 

Wandu wen, the men themselves. 

II. Mwiti 'gwen, the tree itself. 

Mill yen, the trees themselves. 

III. Nyumha yen, the house itself. 
Nyumha zen, the houses themselves. 

IV. Kituli c/ien, the mortar itself i 
Vitvli ven, the mortars themselves. 

V. Iwano lyen, the arrow itself. 

Mawano 'gen, the arrows themselves. 
VI. Lumho Iwen, the song itself. 

Nyumho nywm, the songs themselves. 
VII. Kanyumba ken, the little house itself. 

Vinyumha ven, the little houses them- 
selves. 
VIII. Andu kwen, the place itself. 

Andu kwen, the places themselves. 
IX. Kuiniba kwdn, the singing itself. 

Kuiniba kwen, the singings themselves. 

By myself, by yourself, etc., is expressed by kingu-e- 
H and we^e. 

Imi kingweri, I by myself. 

Uwe Mngweri, you by yourself. 

Isiweke, we by ourselves. 

Inyu weke, you by yourselves. 

When used in connection with substantives, -eke 
takes the same prefix as the possessive pronouns, as — 

Mwiti 'gweke, the tree by itself. 

Miti yeke, trees by themselves. 

Kituli cheke, the mortar by itself. 

Vituli veke, mortars by themselves. 

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. 

There are three sets of demonstrative pronouns. 
The first refer to objects near at hand — 

Mundu uyu, t\i\a "caaxv. 

Mwiti v!gu^ tViV^ tx^^. 



34 ELEMENTARY UTTRODUOTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE. 

The second set of demonstrative pronouns refer to 
objects at a distance, as — 

Mundu ulya, that man. 
Mwiti *gulya, that tree. 

The third set of demonstrative pronouns refer to 
objects previously mentioned, as — 

Mundu uyoy this man, or that, mentioned before. 
Mwiti v!go^ this tree, or that, mentioned before. 

The table on opposite page will show how the demon- 
strative pronouns are used. 

Distance is denoted by the stress laid on the pen- 
ultimate, as — Vlya^ uulyay uuulya, that (man). 

All the above demonstrative pronouns may be 
made to express there he, she, or it is, and there 
they are, by prefixing 8, as — 

Suyu, there he is ; Sawa, there they are. 

Su'gu, there it (tree) is ; Siif there they (trees) are. 

When the demonstrative pronoun begins with a 
consonant, the letter s requires the same vowel as 
that which follows the consonant, as — 

Si-chilya, there it is ; Si-vilya, there they are. 
Si-lyilya, there it is ; Sa-galya, there they are. 

There is a set of demonstrative pronouns denoting 
/ am he, this is it, these are tliey, etc., as — • 

Class I. Imi mwen^ it is I ; isi wen, it is we. 
Uwemwen, it\^i\io\\.',inyu wen, it is you. 
lye mwen, it is he ; Wo wen, it is they. 
II. JTgo ^gwen, this is it; lo en, these are they, 
III. lo en, „ Izo zen, ,, 






,, IV. Icho chen, , 


, Ivo ven. 


» 


„ V. Ilyo lyen, , 


, A' go 'gen, 


if 


,, VI. Ulo Iwen, , 


, Izo zen. 


>» 


,, VII. Akoken, , 


, Ivo ven, 


>> 


J, VIII. JTo kwen, , 


, Ko Kwrn^ 


1") 


f^ IX. ^o hven, 


^, Ko Kweu, 


^^ 



SAOALLA DIALECT. 



35 





• 


























o 


53 



























tfi Vii 


o 








p 















^ 


o 


^ 


<1 


o 

1— • 


o 


o 


••1 




l-H 





> 

t-H 


< 




d 


• 




es 








e8 














ee 


« 




>» 




08 


68 


>» 




e8 




e8 


e8 




>> 


EH 




-3 




:5" 
K3 


>> 






>> 

•—* 




>> 


<«1 




3 


• 




eS 








? 










n1 




d 


^ 




<1 


1— • 


•a 


1— 1 


<1 




1— i 




•..4 
> 
t— 1 


< 




d 


1 




4 

>> 




o 

i 


60 


9\ 




* 
§ 


^ 1 


1 

d" 


54. 


if 






^ 


:s 


Sz; 


^ 


s 




\^ 




^."^ 


< 




M 




o 




























S 



























.9 


w^ 

z 


O 




o 


O 


o 









< 




rd 
<1 




d 








ed 




eC 


rt 








o3 






eS 


• 

15 




08 


>* 

»— 1 

o 


c8 
1— • 




1^ 










>> 




'd 






tf 


























>» 




























:3 




























^ 

9 


tc 






•5; 




1— 1 






e8 




d 

d 


H 




t3 


P 


t— ( 


1— 4 


»— 1 
1^ 




P 




<J 


<1 




w 






R 

*% 



TS 


..re 




1 




§ 

> 


5i 



d 


«0 




1 

d 




d 


• 




• 


• 

I— • 


iz; 


w 


HH 




>A 






-<1 




t^ 


• 

l-H 
1^ 


• 

> 


• 

> 




• 




• 

t— ( 


• 

I— • 




>< 
t— ( 


O 






















> 


^^ 





\ 



36 ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE. 

A negative is formed by prefixing si- and substi- 
tutiDg -ngi for -en, as — 

I. Simi ungi, it is not I ; Sisi wangiyit is not we. 
Suwe ungi, it is not you ; Sinyu wangi, it is not 

you. 

JSiye ungi, it is not he ; Siwo wangi, it is not 

they. 
II. Si^go ^gungi, it is not it ; Sio ingi, it is not they. 

III. Sio ingi, it is not it ; Sizo zingi, it is not 

they. 

IV. Sicho chingi, it is not it ; Sivo vingi, it is not 

they. 
V. Silyo lyingi, it is not it ; SVgo 'gangi, it is not 

they. 
VI. Silo lungi, it is not it ; Sizo zingi, it is not 

they. 
VII. Siko hangi, it is not it ; Sivo %ingi, it is not 

they. 
VIII. Siko kungi, it is not it ; Siko kungi, it is not 

they. 
IX. Siko kungi, it is not it ; Siko kungi, it is not 

they. 

The unchangeable word andumigi may be used 
instead of -ngi to express a negative, as — 

Simi anduangi, it is not I ; Sisi anduangi, it is 

not we. 
Si go anduangi, it is not it ; Sio anduangi, it is not 

etc., etc. they. 

Ainya means, in or at this place. 

Alyen means, in or at that place. 

Aomyao means, in or at that very place. 

Andu hung^ mean.*?, that is it, or that is how it is, 

Kisiku na kisiku, this thiug or that thing. 

fWA:u na tisiku means, something or oth^r. 



SAGALLA DIALECT. 37 

RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 

The relative pronoun is expressed in many different 
ways : — 

I. By the first set of demonstrative pronouns, 
as — 

Ichi kibwaa, this which is great. 

Ivi vafoli, these which are good. 

II. By ni- prefixed to the third set of demonstrative 
pronouns and followed by the same pronoun in its 
simple form, as— 

Ni-ctio ichoy that is it which. 

Nilyo ilyo na/iada, that is it which I want. 

III. By ni- prefixed to the third set of demonstrative 
pronouns and followed by -en, with its appropriate 
prefix, as — 

Ni'lyo ly-eUf that is it which. 

Ni-go ^gw-en nahada, that is it which I want. 

IV. By ni' prefixed to the third set of demonstra- 
tive pronouns, as — 

Nihjo Jyilima, that is it which hoes. 

Ni-go 'geona, these are they which see. 

Y. By the word andu. This word may be used 
with all verbs and with all tenses, as — 

Andu na^gamhay that is what I say. 

Andu neluo, that is where I was. 

Andu nakoMa, that is where I am. 

^iko is often added to give emphasis, as — 

Niko andu neluo, that is tlio very place where I 
was. 

Kwm answers the same purpose, as — 

A7idu kwen nagamhay that ia eita.eVX'j v?\\aX»\ «iisi^\. 



38 ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE. 

Yf. By the parts of the verb *Uo 6e " with na- 
prefixed to the Jast syllable of the third set of demon- 
strative pronouns, as — 

Neluo na-choy I was with it, I had it. 

Ihji neluo nalyo, that which I had. 

VII. By the word wesi, have, as — 

Mdu west iziaoy a man who is greedy. 

Uu west kUya, he who has food. 

VIII. By the demonstrative pronouns of all classes. 
These may be used in connection with all verbs and in 
all tenses, as — 

Uu washaia, he who loves. 

Uu wendesJmia, he who is loving. 

Uu waahaile, he who loved. 

Uu ushaia, he who will love. 

Uu namkiJoita, he whom I beat. 

Uu wakwito, he who is beaten. 

Ichi {kituli) u'chihada, it (mortar) which you want. 

Ichi (kituli) chi/tada^ it (mortar) which wants. 

Ichi (kituli) diihado, it (mortar) which is wanted. 

Uyu (mwiti) u'yuhada, it (tree) which you v^\\\ 

want. 
Ugu (mvnti) ^gulwyia^ it (tree) which wants. 
Ugu (mwiti) 'yuliado, it (tree) which is wanted, etc. 

The negative relative is formed by the use of the 
usual negative prefix, si-, as — 

Si-cho icho na/iada, that is not it which I want! 

Uu sa-wesiy he who has not. 

Uu sagemlile, he who did not go. 

Jchi si-chiwesi, it which has not. 

The word niko is used in connection with personal 
pronouns to express that is what, why, where, and 
when, ixi^—g 

jVzX'o na'gajtiba, that is w\\at 1 aa^. 



SAGALLA DIALECT. 39 

, Niko nakirnbila, that is why I ran. 
Niko na'genda, that is where I go. 
Niko nishaia, that is when I will love. 

Niko may be used with all tenses of the verb. 

INTERROGATIVE AND OTHER PRONOUNS. 

There are four interrogatives which do not vary in 
form : — 

Ini ? what 1 Kudani ? why ? 

Nini ? when 1 Muni ? what kind 1 

Muni always follows the substantive with which 
it is connected, as — 

Mundu muni ? what kind of a man 1 

Wandu muni ? what kind of men ? 

Kiadu muni ? what kind of a thing ? 

What is it ? is expressed by Kimuni ? 
The following will show how the interrogatives are 
used : — 

Iclii n'ini ? what is this ? 

Ukuja nini ? when will you come ? 

Wagora kudani ? why do you speak ? 

Whaf^ is often expressed by the syllable -ni, suffixed 
to the verb, as — 

Uhadorni ? what do you want 1 

Kwanaweai-ni ? what does it matter 1 

•ni is often used with the appropriate prefix to 
express nothing and no : — • 

Wadeani ? what do they ? Wa-ni = nothing. 

Wahadani ? what (thing) do you want ] Cha-ni = 
nothing. 

Lyalasa ? has it (the arrow) hit 1 Lya-ni = no. 

-ni suffixed to the particle na-, with or and, pre- 
ceded by the verb " ^o 6e/' is used to express what ia 
there, as — 



40 ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE. 

Uo na-ni ? what is there with you 1 = what is the 
matter with you ? 

Chiu) na-ni ? what is there with it ? = what is the 
matter with it 1 

The same form following a negative verb may 
express why not 1 as — 

Sishaia nuo rm-ni ? why shall I not love ? 
Sedea uo norni ? why will he not do (it) % 

'Who ? when 1 and whose % are expressed by -ani ? 
(a) Ani is used alone when asking the question 
who 1 as — 

l^u ani ? who art thou ] 
Mu ani ? who are you 1 
iT* ani ? who is he ? 

(5) Ani is often suflSxed to ku-, which then becomes 
kwani, to express to, or/rom whom ? as — 

Wqfumia kioani ? from whom do you come 1 
Weja kwani ? to whom do you come % 

(c) Ani is used with the appropriate prefix to express 
whose — 

Mdu v)ani ? whose man ? 

Wa7idu wani ? whose men ] 
Mwiti ^gicani ? whose tree ] 
Iwano lyani ? whose arrow ? 

How ? is expressed by ije ? This may either be used 
alone, or suffixed to the verb — 

Jje ? how is it 1 

Kwakallaije ? how does the matter stand 1 

Wa^gamhaije ? how, or what do you say ? 

Where % is expressed by hiyo ? or iyo ? It may be 
suffixed to verbs, thus — 

Wagendorhiyo ? where are you going I 
Uo iyo ? where are you ? 

CMo iyo ? where is it 1 



SAGALLA DIALECT. 



41 



The following will show how iyo ? is used with the 
verb " to he " : — 



CLASa. 

I. 

ii. 

III. 

IV. 

V. 

VI. 

VII. 

VIII. 
IX. 

The 
which 
as — 



where is he (man) ? 
where are they (men) ? 
where is it (tree) ? 
where are they (trees) 1 
where is it (house) ? 
where are they (houses) ] 
where is it (mortar) ? 
where are they (mortars) ? 
where is it (arrow) ? 
where are they (arrows) 1 
where is it (song) 1 
where are they (songs) ? 
where is it (little house) 1 
where are they (little houses) ? 
where is it (place) % 
where is it (singing) ] 

above are also used to express Which ? in 
case the two words are contracted into one, 



Uo it/0 ? 
Weo iyo ? 
^Guo iyo ? 
lo iyo ? 
lo iyo ? 
Zio iyo ? 
Ohio iyo ? 
Vio iyo ? 
Lyio iyo ? 
^Geo iyo ? 
Luo iyo ? 
Nyuo iyo ? 
Keo iyo ? 
Veo iyo ? 
Kuo iyo ? 
Kuo iyo ? 



Uoiyo f which (man) ? 

Waiyo ? which (men) ? 

^Gwoiyo ? which (tree) ? 

lo'iyo ? which (trees) 1 

To pronounce these words properly, a quick ear and 
much practice are very necessary. 

How many 1 is expressed by -liTiga ? This takes the 
appropriate prefix — 



CLASS. 



I. WaTidu wcdinga ? 
II. Miti milinga ? 

III. Nyumha ndinga f 

IV. VitiUi vUinga '( 

y. Mawano malinga ? 



how many men ? 
how many trees ? 
how many houses ? 
how many mortars 1 



42 ELEMEXTARY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE. 

CLASS. 

VI. Nyumho ndinga f how many songs ? 

VII. Vinyamba vilinga ? how many little houses 1 

VIII. Andu kwalinga ? how many places 1 

IX. Kuimba kwalinga f how many singings 1 

How often ? is expressed by kalinga f 

VERBS. 

The infinitive mood of most verbs in the Sagalla 
dialect ends in -a, as — 

Ku-genda, to go. Kvrfwa, to die. Ku-tamha, to 
travel. 

The simplest form of the verb, as in English, is 
found in the second person singular of the imperative 
mood, as — 

Seha^ laugh ! Lima, cultivate ! 

Kwitay beat ! Ztsa, feed ! 

The second person plural is formed by changing the 
final -a of the singular into -e, and adding -ni, as — 

Seke-ni, laugh ye ! Linu-ni, cultivate ye ! . 

Kioite-ni, beat ye ! Lise-ni, feed ye ! 

The subjunctive is often used as an imperative both 
in the singular and plural, as — 

U-rtikote ! you ask him ! 

U-mkwite ! you beat him ! 

Mu^m-funge ! bind ye him ! 

Mu-gv.-teme I cut it (tree) down ! 

All other tenses and moods are made by prefixing 
and suffixing appropriate syllables to the simple form 
of the verb. 

There are two conjugations, the affirmative and 
the negative, in which the voice, mood, tense, person, 
dumber, subject^ and object are denoted by prefixes 



SAGALLA DIALEOT. 43 

and suffixes. These when pronounced together form 
one word, as — 

Ni-je-m-kwita, I will beat him. 

Wa-mtag-Uef they have sold him. 

THE TENSBS. 

The common order of the particles denoting person, 
tense, etc., is as follows : — 

I. The subjective personal prefix, which denotes 
subject, person, and number. 

II. The tense prefix. 

III. The objective prefix, which denotes object, 
person, and number, as — 

Ni-je-chi-guUij I will buy it. 

This word when tak«n to pieces will be found to 
contain — 

I. A7-, prefix denoting personal pronoun, subjective 
case, first person singular. 

II. -je-, tense prefix denoting future time. 

III. 'chi', prefix agreeing with the fourth class of 
substantives, denoting objective case, the third person 
singular. 

IV. -gukby verb (minus the sign of the infinitive ku-) 
meaning buy. 

The past perfect is denoted by a change in the 
termination of the verb, as — 

^a-chi-gul-ile, I bought it. 

I. N'a-f prefix denoting subject, first person singular. 

II. -chi-j prefix denoting object agreeing with nouns 
of the fourth class, third person singular. 

III. -gtil-, verb (minus the sign of the infinitive ku-, 
and the stem -a), meaning buy. 

IV. -He, tense prefix, denoting past time. 

The noun denoting the object of the sentence 
follows the verb, thus : — 

JVachigulile JdtuM^ 1 \)0\i^\i \.\^^ \assv\ax » 



44 ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE. 

The Rign of the present imperfect tense appears to 
be a relic of the verb kugenda, to go, deprived of its 
root consonant -g- thus, na-enda-livia : this would be 
its full form ; but the -a- of the pronominal pretix is 
absorbed by the -e- of the tense prefix and become s 
long -6-, as — iirende-liina, I am hoeing. 

Na-y prefix denoting subject, first person singular. 

-ende-, tense prefix denoting a continuous state. 

'lima, verb (minus the infinitive ku-), which denotes 
hoe. 

The immediate future has no tense prefix, but 
the pronominal prefixes which it take at the 
beginning denote both subject and state, as-^ 

Ni-'gvrlima (m/gunda), I will hoe it (the garden). 

Here we get ni-, subjective prefix and tense sign 
combined, followed directly by the objective sign 
agreeing with a noun of the second class. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present Tense, 

This is formed by prefixing the syllable denoting 
the personal pionoun in the subjective case (see p. 
26). This answers to our common English present, 
/ come, I love, etc. 

Class. Sing. Plur. 

I. Na-shaia, I love. Ta-sliaia, we love. 

Wasliaia, thou lovest. Mwa-shaia, you love. 
Wa- or a-shaia, he or she Wa shaia, they love. 

loves. 
II. ^Gworshaia, it loves Yashaia, they love or 

or likes. like. 

III. Ya-shaia, „ Za-ahaia, „ 

IV. Cha-shaia, „ Va-shaia, 
V. Ly a-shaia, ,, *G a-shaia, 

VX Lwa-shaia, „ Awa-shaia^ 

t 

F 



>1 
1^ 



8AGALLA DIALECT. 45 



ChlSS. 




Sing. 


Plur. 


VII. 


Korsliaia, it loves or 


Vors/iaia, they love o?* 






likes. 


like. 




Tvrshaia, 


» 


Vorsliaia, „ 


VIII. 


Kworshaiai 


» 


Kwa-shaia, „ 


IX. 


Kiva-shaia, 


j> 


A!M?a shaia, „ 



This tense is also used as a perfect tense denoting 
a complete action at the present time, thus na m-kota 
may mean, I ask him, or I have asked him ; nahada 
may mean, I seek, or I have sought. 

iTnperfect Tense, 

The chai'acteristic mark of this tense is -ende-, and 
it is formed by prefixing the sign of the personal 
pronoun, followed by the word -ende-, thus — na-ende- 
genda, I am going. This full form, however, is never 
used, but it is contracted into ne-nde-genda. Ttis 
denotes an action going on at the time of speaking, 
as — 

Ne-nde-liina, I am hoeing, that is, I am in the act of 
hoeing. 

Class, Sing. Plur. 

I. Ne-nde-shaia, I am Te-nde-skaia, we are 
loving. loving. 

We-ndeshaia, thou art Mwe-nde shaia, you are 

loving. loving. 

We-tide-shaia, he or she We-nde-shaia, they are 
is loving. loving. 

II. ^ Gwe-nde shaia, it is Ye-nde-shaia, they are 





loving. 




loving. 


III. 


Ye-ndeshaia, 


i> 


Ze-nde-shaia, „ 


IV. 


Clie-nde-slvaia, 


>> 


Ve-nde shaia, ,, 


V. 


Lye-nde-shaia, 


» 


'Ge-nde-shaia, „ 


VI. 


Lwe-nde-shaia, 


» 


Wyxoe-^e shaia, „ 


^11. 


Ke-nde-shaia, 


»> 


Ve-nde shaia, „ 




Te-nde-sliaia^ 


» 


Ve-ude-akaxo.^ 



^^ 



46 ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE. 

Class. Sing. Plur. 

VIII. Kwe-nde-shataf it is loviDg. Kwe-nde-shaia, we 

are loving. 
IX. Ktve-nde-shaia, „ Kwe-nde-eluiia, „ 

This form is sometimes used to express a future. 

Perfect Tense. 

There are two perfects denoting a finished action — 

1. A present perfect answering to the English with 
have, as — na-genda, I have gone. 

2. A past perfect denoting an act finished some 
time ago, as — na-gend-ile, I went. 

wm I X hor e are two forms of the present perfect — the fii-st 
is the same as the present tense, as, Tha-ge-^a, I have 
gone. 

The second preterite is formed by prefixing the 
sign of the personal pronoun followed by the word 
,-eja-, AS — ii-ejorlima, I have hoed. 

Class. Sing. Plur, 

I. N-ejorshaiay I have Teja-shaia, we have 
loved. loved. 

W-eja-s/iaiay thou Last Mw-ejashaia, you have 
loved. loved. 

W-ejorshaia, he or she Weja-shaia, they have 



has loved. 




loved. 


II. 'Gio-ejorshaia, 


it has 


Y-ejorskaia, they have 


loved. 




loved. 


III. Y-eja-shaia, 


It 


Z-ejorshaia, „ 


IV. Ch-eja-shaia^ 


f> 


V-eja shaia, „ 


V. Ly-eja-skaiaj 


9t 


^ G-ejorsliaia, „ 


VI. Lvy-ejarshaia, 


>f 


Niv-eja-shaia, „ 


VII. X-ejorshaia, 


» 


V-eja-shaia, „ 


T-ejorshaiaf 


»> 


V-eja-ahaiay „ 


VIII. Kw-eja-shaia, 


>> 


Kweja-ahaia^ „ 


IX. Kwejashaia, 


» 


Kwejashaia, ,, 



2V2e full form of the above would \)e ua-eja-j^liaaa. 



SAaALLA. DIALECT. 47 

but the -Or is absorbed into the -e-. This tense, how- 
ever, is rarely used. 

JPast Perfect Tense. 

There are two forms of the past perfect. The first 
is formed by changing the final letter -a of the verb 
into -^76, as — na-ge^id-ile, I went. Verbs ending in -ra 
make their past perfect by changing the final letter -a 
into -ere, as — na-m-gorer-ere, I told him. 

Class. Sing. Plur. 

I. NaalwrUef I loved. Ta sha-ilej we loved. 
Worska-iley thou loved. Mwa-sha-iUf you loved. 

War or Orsha-ile, he or Wa-sha-ile, they loved, 
she loved. 

II. ^Gwasha ile, it loved. Yorsha-ile, they loved. 

III. Ya-sha-ile, „ Zasha-ile, ,, 

lY. Chorsluiile, ,, Va-sha-ile, „ 

V. Lya-shorile, „ 'Ga-s/ia-ile, ,, 

VI. Lwashorile, „ Nywa-sha-iUy „ 

VII, Kashor^le, „ Va-sha-ile, 

Tu-sha ile, „ Va s ' a-ile, 

VIII. Kwa-sJwb-ile, „ Kwa-sha-ile, 

IX. Kwa-sha-ile, „ Kwasha-ile, 

The second past perfect is formed by prefixing the 
sign of the personal pronoun followed by the word 
-ejile, as — wa-ejile-lima, contracted into we-jile-lima, 
they cultivated. 

Class. Sing. Plur. 

I. N-ejUe-sliaia, I loved. T-ejile-sIiaia, we loved. 
W-ejile-shaia, thou Mw-ejUe-shaia, you 

loved. loved. 

W-ejUe-shaia, he or she W-ejile-shaia, they 
loved. loved. 

II. 'Gw-ejUe-sluiia, it loved. Y-ejile-shaia, they 

loved. 
Ill' y-ejile-shaia, „ Z-cJile-sliaxa, ^^ 






48 ELEMEJfTARY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE. 

Class. Sing. Plur. 

IV. Chejile-shaia, it loved. V-ejUe-shaia, they 

loved. 

V. Ly ejile-shaia, „ ^ G-ejile-shaia, „ 

VI. Lw-ejile skaia, ,, Nyw-ejile-shaia, „ 

VII. Kejile-sftaia, „ V-ejUe-sJiaia, ,, 

l^-ejile-shaiay „ V-ejile-shaia, „ 

VIII. Kw-ejile-sliaiay „ Kw-ejUe-sJiaia, „ 

IX. Kw-ejUe shaia, „ Kw-ejile-shaia, „ 

The full form of this tense would be na ejile-ge-^idcif 
but the -a of ?ia- is absorbed by -e,-ejile-, n-ejile-genda, 
I went, or I had gone. 

Future Ten^e, 

There are two future tenses — the mediate and 
the immediate. The mediate signifies an action that 
will take place at some future time ; the immediate 
signifies an action that will take place without delay. 

The mediate future is formed by prefixing the 
personal "'pronoun followed by the syllable -je- to the 
verb, as — ni-je-lima, I will cultivate. 

Class. Sing. Plur. 

I. Ni-je-shaia^ I will love. Ti-je-ahaia, we will 

love. 
U-je-shaia, thou wilt love. Mu^e-aJtxiia, you will 

love. 
U- or we-je-shaia, he or We-je-shaia, they will 
she will love. love. 

II. 'Gu'je-sliaia, it will love. I-je-shaia, they will 

love. 



HI. I-je-shaia, 


)) 


Zirje-ahaia, 


IV. Chi-je-shaia, 


» 


Vi-je-ahaia, 


V. Lyi-je-shaia, 


>» 


^Ge-je-aluiia, 


VI. Lwe-J€-shaia, 


» 


Nywe-je-almia, 


^11. Keje-shaia, 


M 


Ve-je-ahaia, 


Te;/es/iaia, 


11 


Ve-je-ahxiia, 



99 

19 

SI 



SAGALLA DIALECT. 49 

Class. Sing. Plur. 

VIII. Kwe-je-shaiay it will love. Kwe-je-shaia, they 

will love. 
IX. Kwe-je-ahaiay „ Kwe-je-ahaia^ „ 

The immediate future is formed by the use of the 
same pronominal prefixes as in the mediate future, but 
without the syllable ./e-, and slightly throwing the 
accent on the final syllable of the verb, as — ni-lima, I 
will cultivate. 

The final -a of this tense is often changed into 
-a^ga, as — ni-lim-a'gay I will cultivate. 

Class. Sing. Plur. 

I. Ni-shaia, I will love. Ti-shaiay we will love. 
U-shaia, thou wilt love. Mu-sliaia, you will 

love. 



« 


U'skaia, he 
love. 


or she will 


• We-shaia, th( 


ij will 
love. 


II. 


'Gu ahaiaj it will love. 


I-shaia, they 


will love. 


III. 


I'sJiaiaf 


>> 


Zi shaia, 




IV. 


Ghirshaia^ 


yi 


Vi-shaiay 




V. 


Lyi-sliaia^ 


f} 


'Ge-shaiay 




VI. 


Lioe-ahaia, 


99 


Nywe-skaia, 




VII. 


Ke-shaia, 


99 


Ve-shaia, 






Te-shaia, 


)9 


Ve- shaia, 




VIII. 


Kwe-shma, 


)} 


Kwe-shaia, 




IX. 


Kwe-shaia, 


» 


Kwe-shaia, 






Narrative Tense, 





In relating a narrative, or making any communica- 
tion, a verb in the perfect tense is used to begin 
with, and the remaining verbs are put into what is 
called the narrative tense. This is formed by inserting 
-ka- after the pronominal prefix. This -ka- has the 
power of the English and, as — ni-ka-genda, and I went. 

This tense takes the same prefix as the future te^jkae^^ 
except in the third persons smg;v3i\a.v* «k.\i^ ^xxs^. 



60 ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE. 

Class. Sing. Plur. 

I. Ni-korsliaia, and I loved. Ti-ka-shaia, and we 

loved. 
i7-^a-«/wita, and thou loved. Mu-ka-shaia, and 

you loVfed. 
A'ka-shaia, and he or she Wa-ka-shaiaf and 

loved. they loved. 

II. ^ Gvrkaelvaia, and it loved. I-karshaia^ and they 

loved. 



III. 


I-ka-shaia^ 


»» 


Zi-ka-shaia, ,, 


IV. 


Chi'kors/iaiaf 


>» 


Vi-ka-shaia, „ 


V. 


Lyi-kashaiaf 


» 


^Ge-korshaia, „ 


^L 


Lwe-ka-shaia, 


ti 


Nywekorshaiaf „ 


VII. 


Ke-ka-aliaia, 


»> 


Veka-shaia, „ 




Te-korshaiay 


» 


F6-A:a-5Aata, „ 


VIII. 


Kwe-korsluiia, 


>» 


Kwe-ka-shaia, „ 


IX. 


Kwe-kaehaia, 


» 


Kwe ka-shaia, ,, 



Conditional Tenses. 

There are seventeen words and phrases which may 
be called conditional tenses. Nine of these may be 
said to express a state of things supposed to be 
existing — the actual conditional tenses. Six may be 
said to express the case as an unlikely one — the 
possible conditional tenses. The remaining two are 
contingents. 

Actual Conditional Tenses, 

1. The imperfect conditional is formed by inserting 
-ke- immediately after the subjective personal pronoun, 
as — 

Nike-, as I was. 

This takes the same subjective personal pronoun as 
the future indicative. 

A^i-ke-genda, as I was gom^. 



8AGALLA DIALECT. 51 

2. The Present Conditional is formed by inserting 
je- immediately after the subjective personal pronoun, 
as — 

Ni-je-lola^ as I looked. 

This takes the same subjective personal pronoun as 
the future indicrative. 

3. There are four perfects. 

(a) This i< formed by the word ijua, placed before 
the full form of the present indicative, as — 

Ijua nafika, as I arrived. 

4. (6) This is formed by the word ere placed before 
the full form of the future indicative, as — , 

Ere nigeiida, having gone, oi' while I went. 

5. (c) This is formed, by the word ihji placed before 
the full form of the future indicative, as — 

Ilyi nijenflay while I went, or having gone. 

6. {(1) This is formed by the word macha placed 
before the full form of the present indicative, as-- 

Macha namwona, having now seen him. 

7. Past. There are two pasts. 

(a) This is made by changing the final -a of the 
mediate future into -6, as — 

Nigeiidti since I went. 

8. (6) This is made by combining the future tBnses 
of the verb kugenda, with the infinitive mood of the 
verb that expresses the action, as — 

Nigenda kufika, when I had arrived. 

9. The future conditional is formed by placing the 
word ijua before the subjunctive, as — 

ffua nigende^ wlien \ &\i^X\. ^^^ 



52 ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE. 

Possible Conditional Tenses, 

1. There are two present conditional tenses : — 

(a) This is made by inserting the syllable -ka- 
immediately after the subjective personal pronoun. 
This takes the same subjective personal pronoun as 
the future indicative, as — 

Ni-ka-gendaf if I go. 

2. (5) This is formed by repeating the verb twice, 
fiiTst in the mediate future, and then in the subjunc- 
tive, as — Kwamha nigenda nigende, if I go, then let 
me go. 

3. Future. There are three future conditional tenses. 
(a) This is formed by placing the word kadoka 

before the present indicative, as — 

Kadoka nagenda, if I shall go. 

4. {h) This is formed by placing the word kasikila 
before the present indicative, as — 

Kasikila nagenda, if I shall go. 

5. (c) This is formed by placing the word hatta 
l)efore the narrative tense, as — 

Hatta ukagenda, even if you do go. 

6. (d) This is formed by placing the word kwena 
before the subjunctive mood, as — 

Kwena adee^ even if he should do. 

Contingent Tenses. 

The present is formed by placing the word ngera 
before the present indicative, as — 

Ngera nashuia, did I, or if I did love. 

The past is formed by placing the word nda^ before 
the present indicative, as — 

JlWaa najnanya, had I, or if I had known. 



SAGALLA DIALECT. 53 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

The simplest form of the verb may be used as an 
imperative, as — 

Kwita I beat ! Genda ! go ! 
Seka 1 laugh 1 Lisa I feed ! 

In the presence of an objective prefix, the fiinal 
letter a is changed into -6, as — 

M'ktvit-e, beat him. Xu-kwit-e, beat thyself. 

M-sek-e, laugh at him, Ni-lis-e, feed me. 

The second person plural is made by changing the 
final -a into -e, and adding -ni, as — 

Seke-ni ! laugh ye I Gende-ni J go ye ! 
Kwite^i I beat ye ! Liae-ni I feed ye ! 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD, 

The subjunctive is formed by prefixing the same sat 
of personal pronouns as those used in the future 
indicative, and changing the final letter -a of the verb 
into '€, as — 

Nishaie, that I may love. 

It may be made to express a variety of meanings. 

1. As an imperative, thus — 

Nigendty let me go. 

This is the only form in which it can be used in the 
first and third persons. 

2. As a subjunctive, thus — 

Nigend-e that I may go. 

3. Interrogatively by adding -ha, thus — 

Nigende-ha f may I go ? 

4. As an interrogative by adding on -ije, thus — 

Nigende ije ? bo^ ma.^ \ ^q\ 



54 ELKMEXTARY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE. 

5. As an inberrogAtive by adding the word -^ini. 
This word requires the appropriate pronominal prefix, 
thus — 

Nigende loani ? why may I go 1 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

The infinitive is made in all cases by prefixing ku- 
to the simple root of the verh, as — 

Kuseka, to laugh ; Ku-gtnda^ to go. 
Ku-kwitOf to beat ; Kulisa, to feed. 

The infinitive is frequently used as a verbal noun, 
as — 

Kicseka, laughing ; Kukmita, beating. 

Kuseka kwako, your laughing ; Kukwit c kwako, 
your beating. 

THE NEGATIVE CONJUGATION. 

Verbs by use of proper prefixes may be made 
negative. 

The characteristic letter of the negative conjugation 
is aS', which always stands first. 

Pi^&ent Tense, 

This tense is formed by prefixing the negative sign 
si- to the future form of the affirmative, except in the 
1st, 2nd, and 3rd persons singular, and the 2nd and 
3rd persons plural, of the first class of substantives, 
which are irregular, as — 

Class. Sing. Plur. 

I. Si-shaia, I do not love. Si-ii-shaia, we do not 

love. 
*S'M-5/iaia, thou dost not jSu-niu-shaia, yo\i do. not 

love. love. 

Sa- or se-shaia, he or Sa-wa-shaia, they do not 
she does nob love. love. 



SAGALLA DIALECT. 55 

Class. Sing. Plur. 

II. Si'gvrshaia, it does not Si-is/iaia, they do not 

love. love. 



III. Si-i-shaiay 


>> 


tSi-zi-shaia, ,, 


IV. Si chi-s/taia, 


>> 


Si-vi-ahaia, „ 


V. Si-lyi-shaiay 


» 


Si-ge-shaia, „ 


VI. Si-lu-shaiay 


>»• 


tSi-nyvrshaia, „ 


VII. Si-ke-shaiay 


» 


Si-ve-sliaia, „ 


Si-te-s/iaia, 


»» 


Si-ve-shaia, „ 


Till, Si-kwe-shaia, 


» 


Si-kwe-s/iaia, „ 


IX. Si-kwe shaia, 


>» 


Si-kwe-shaia, „ 


The negative imperfect is 


not used. 




Negative 


Pas^. 



There is but one negative past tense. This is* 
formed from the past affirmative by prefixing the 
proper negative prefix, as in the present negative, 
thus — 



Class. 


Sing. 


I. 


Si-ahaile, 


I did 


nfit love. 




Su-shaile, 


thou, etc. 




Sa- or se-shaile, 


he or 


she, etc. 


II. 


Si-^ gu-shaile, . 


it did not love. 


III. 


Si-i-sJiailey 






IV. 


Si-chi-sliaile, 






V. 


Si-lyi-shailey 






VI. 


Si-lvrsliaile, 






VII. 


fSi'ke-shaile, 








Si-te-ahaile, 






VIII. 


Si-kwe-sliaile, 






IX. 


Si-kwe-shaile, 






Class. 




Plur. 


I. 


Si-ti-slvaile, 


we 


! did not love. 




Syrmusliaile, 


you did not love. 



Sa-wa- or we-ahaihy \h\&^ ^\. \xq\» Vss^» 



56 ELEMENTABY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE. 



Class. 




Plur. 


II. 


Si-i-shaUey 


they did not love. 


III. 


Si-zirsliaile, 


» 


IV. 


Si-vi-shaile, 


)i 


V. 


Si-ge-sJiaile, 


» 


VI. 


Si-nyvrshaiie, 


9t 


VII. 


Si'ke-shaile, 






Si-te-shaile, 


» 


VIII. 


Si'kwe-shaile, 


)i 


IX. 


Si-kwe-shaile, 


a 



Negative Future Mediate, 

The negative mediate future is formed from the 
affirmative by prefixing the proper negative signs as 
in the present. 

Class. Sing. 

I. Si-je-shaia, I will not love. 

Surje-shaia, thou wilt not love. 

Se-je-slvaia, he or she will not love. 

II. Si-gurje-sJiaia, it will not love. 

III. Si-i-je-shaia, • „ 

IV. Si'chi-je-shaia, „ 

etc., etc. 

Class. Plur. 

I. Si-ti-je-akaia, ' we will not love. 

Su-rnvrje-shaia^ you will not love. 

Si-we-je-almiay they will not love. 

II. /Si-ije-shaia, they will not love. 

III. Si-zi-je-aJmiay „ 

IV. fSi-vi-je-shaia, „ 

etc., etc. 
This tense is rarely used. 

Negative Futv/re Immediate. 
The negative immediate future is the same as the 
present negative. 



SAGALLA DIALECT. 57 

** Not yet " Tense Present, 

This tense denotes that the action has not taken 
place up to the time of speaking, implying that it may 
some day come to pass. It is formed by prefixing the 
proper personal pronoun followed by -na- to the word 
-kaile, the verb expressing the action taking the 
infinitive mood, as — 

Na-na-Jcaile hugenda, I have not yet gone. 
ChcHfia-kaile hadmiy it is not yet finished. 
Wa-na-kaile kuja, they have not yet come. 

- " Not yet " Tense Past, 

This tense is intended to denote that the action had 
not taken place at the time that another happened. 
It is formed by prefixing the appropriate personal 
pronoun to the word -kaile, the verb expressing the 
action taking the infinitive mood, as — 

Ne-kaile kudea, I had not yet done (it). 

' Gvrkaile kugwa, it (tree) had not yet fallen. 
Kwa kaile kuswa, it had not yet become dark. 

It is not often that the difference is a marked one 
between these tenses. 

Negative Conditional Tenses, 

Most of the affirmative conditional tenses may 
be made negative by prefixing the usual negative 
sign— 

Ngera sagenda simhawe, if he had not gone, I would 
not have given (it) him. 

Kadoka simwona simkimbila, if I shall not see him 
I will not run away. 

Macha samwona, having no'w \io\, ^^e^VvsfiL. 



58 ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE. 

Negative Imperative. 

There are three ways of expressing the negative 
imperative. 

1. By the word sii/a, followed by the verb in the 
infinitive mood, as — 

Siga kumkijcita ! do not beat him ! 

2. By the verb in the infinitive mood followed by 
the word fiibai^ as — 

Kuaeka mhai ! do not laugh ! 

3. By the negative subjunctive, as — 

Svxidee ! do not do (it) ! 

Sumwagende ! do not ye go ! 

Negative Subjunctive, 

The negative subjunctive is made from the affirma- 
tive by using the usual negative signs, except in the 
lirot class of substantives, which are irregular in this 
respect. 

Class. Sing. 

I. JSa-shaie, may I not love. 

Svxi-shaie, may you not love. 

tSa-shaie, may he or she not love. 

II. Si-gu-shaie, may it not love, 
etc., etc. 

Class. Plur. 

I. Si-ta-shaiey may we not love. 

Su-niworshaiey may you not love. 

Sa-wa-shaie, may they not love. 

II. Si'i-shaie, may they not love, 
etc., etc. 

A]} negatives may become strong affirmatives 



SAGALLA DIALECT. 59 

by the addition of an -e to the final letter of the 
verb — 

Si genda-e, I do go. 

Si-sIfaia-By I do love. 

Sa-uanda-e, he has sown. 

This form often means a very strong affirmative. 



PASSIVE VOICE. 

The passive voice is formed from the active by 
simply clianging the final vowel of the verb into -o — 

NaJcwifa^ I be.it ; Nakwit-o^ I am beaten. 
TaonUe, we saw ; Taonil-o, Ave were seen. 
Nigora, I will tell ; Nigor-o^ I will be told. 

The -o in tlie future is often changed into -o^go — 

Ukwit-o'gOf you will be beaten. 

There are two peculiar phrases used in speaking, 
not hitherto mentioned. 

1. In telling a story the negative is often expressed 
by a phrase : e. g, instead of using the ordinary nega- 
tive, they say — 

Nik<nnyza nikuhawa rmkono misano, ela iye, amlo 
kungi vxi8Juiia, nikotu — 1 said to him, I will give you 
five hands; but he, do you suppose he agreed, nob 
at all. 

2. When the speaker, in telling a story, reaches 
the climax of any part of his speech, instead of carry 
ing on the assertion, he turns it into a question — shall 
I not ? — to which the second party replies, angoije ? or 
'* what else t " *' quite so ! " ** of course ! '' etc., etc. 

IVanuza nikuonye kwa Mzungu, masena kalla aenya, 
hafuka aikutwala ? angoije ? You ask me to show you 
the European's ; well, wait here, in the evening shall I 
not take you 1 eh ! 



60 ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE. 



DERIVATIVE VERBS. 

There are seven derivative forms which may be 
constructed out of most Sagalla verbs. 

1. The Frequentative Form. 

This form is used to express an action that is being 
done continually. It is formed by inserting -na 
after the personal pronoun of the present indicative, 
and changing the final letter of the verb into •oi'gay 
as — 

Ta nadea^gaj we do (it) continually. 

Wa-nalinia' ga, they do cultivate, or they are in the 

habit of cultivating. 
'Gwa-na-vcda^ga, it bears from time to time. 
Na-na-ga-lyVga^ga, I am in the habit of eating 

them. 

2. The Applied Form. 

This form is used where in English a preposition 
would be employed to connect the verb with the 
object. It is formed by changing the final letter of 
the verb into -Ha or -ela — 

Kvde-ila, to do for. Kulia-ila, to feed for. 

Kulim-ila, to hoe for. Kuoch-ekty to roast for. 
Ktdet-ela, to bring for. Kugens-ela, to take to, 

or for. 

3. The Causative Form. 

This form is made by changing the final letter of the 
verb into -wa, or -iaha, 

Kndmlugay to run ; Kududugisha^ to cause to run. 

Kngnhti to go ; Kugaliaha, to cause to go. 

Kuujn^ to return ; Kuujiaa, to cause to return. 

A'^(/(^Atft to clhttb ; Kujosa, to cause to climb. 



8AGALLA DIALECT. 61 

When the last syllable ends in -ha, the -sa^ is 
substituted for the -kay as in kujoka^ to climb. 

4. The Neuter, or Quasi-passive fomi. 

This is formed by changing the final letter of the 
verb into -ha, or -ika, or -oka, 

Kuvunja, to break ; Kuvunjika, to be broken, 
Kunona, to spoil ; Kunoneka, to be spoiled. 

Kugolola, to straighten ; Kugohka, to be straightened. 
Kugakda, to turn ; Kugaluka, to be turned. 

When the last syllable ends in -la, the -ka is 
substituted for the -ta, as in kugalula, to turn. 

This 'ka form is often used to represent a thing as 
feasible — 

Kudea, to do ; Kudeika, to be do-able. 

Knkama, to milk ; Kukamikay to be milk-able. 

Kulirna, to hoe ; Kitlimika, to be hoe-able. 

Kukota, to dig ; Kukoteka, to be dig-able. 

5. Tlie Reflexive Fomi, 

This is formed by inserting -ku- between tlie 
pronominal prefix and the verb, after which, the word 
-en with the appropriate prefix is added — 

Norhurkwita mw-en, I beat myself. 

Kunonay to spoil ; Kukunona -en, to spoil oneself. 
Ku-shaia, to love ; Kukushaia -en, to love oneself. 
Kutlyaia, to stab ; Kukutlyaia -en, to stab oneself. 

6. TJi^ Reciprocal Fo9*vi. 

This is made by changing the final -a into -ana, or 
-anya — 

Kushaia, to love ; Kushaiana, to love one another. 
Kidwana, to fight \ ^itZtoauaua, \iQ ^^\» Qrckft ^xsRJOsi^Js 



Si. 



^i ELS)IE>rrART DiTIfcODCCnOX TO TAITA LANGUAGE. 

K^jemfm^ to go : - Am^/k/ciii^, to go together. 
Ki$if€stMy to make Ktuesant^ to make peace with 
j^eac^ ; one another. 

7. The Strengthened Form. 

This form gives the idea of thoroughness, by 
doubling the verK 

Kuptj^soy to cut ; Kup€isa-p(Msaf to cut to piecea 

Kupaiiiy to split ; Kujiaia-paia, to split in pieces. 

Khkhailay to $eek ; Ktihatda-hada, to seek well. 

Kt4embay to deceive ; Kueniba-emlay to deceive much. 

IRREGULAB VERBS. 

All monosyllabic verbs are irregular in forming 
their present and future tenses. They change their 
final letter into 4ga, or -ega, as — ktU^a, to eat. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

• Present Tense, 

Sing. Plur. 

Xi*lyi*gay I eat. Talytgay we eat. 

Walifig^y thou eatest. ^fwall/Vgay you eat. 

Widish gay he or she eats. Walyi'ga, they eat, etc. 

Future Tense, 

Sing. Plur. 

y^l^igiis I will eat. Tihji^ga, we will eat. 

rVy# ya, thou wilt eat. MtdyVga, you will eat. 

tVy# V<*> ^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ Walyi'gaj they will eat, 

eiit. etc. 

Tlie fimvl -a of this tense may be changed into -a'ya, 
etc, ^s—migi'giigay I will eat. 

Perfect Tense, 
The perfect in these verbs does not follow the 
pi'iK^ent, but it takes the same form which should 
Jia vv heea the regular present, as — 



SA6ALLA DIALECT. 63 

Sing. Plur. 

Nalya^ I have eaten ; Tcdya, we have eaten. 

Walya, thou hast eaten ; Mwalya, you have eaten. 

Walya^ he or she has Wcdya^ they have eaten, 
eaten ; etc. 

The following is a list of monosyllabic verbs : — 

Kvlya, to eat. Kufwa^ to die. Kunwa, to drink. 
Kusluty to grind. Kugwa^ to fall. Kunyciy to fall (of 

rain). 
Kuchaj to rise (of the sun). Kuswa, to set (of the 

sun). 

The past perfect of these verbs is formed by 
changing the final letter -a into -Us or -ele. 

The imperative of these verbs is formed thus : lyi^ga, 
or lya, singular, and lyeni^ plural. 

Kuja, to come, is peculiar to itself. 

Present Tense, 

Sing. Plur. 

Neja, I come. Teja, we come. 

Weja, thou comest. Mweja, you come. 
Weja, he or she comes. Weja, they come, etc. 

Imperfect Tense. 

Sing. Plur. 

Nendeja, I am coming ; Tendejay we are coming. 

Wendejaf thou art coming ; Mwendeja, you are 

coming. 
Wendeja, he or she is coming ; Wendeja, they are 

coming. 
Perfect Tense. 

The first perfect is the same as the present tense — 

Sing. Plur. 

^eja, I have come ; Teja, ^^ \kaN^ cQ\s^<i^ ^^.^* 



G4 ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE. 

The other form of the perfect is the same as the first 
followed by the infinitive, as — 

Sing. Plur. 

Neja kuja, I have come ; Teja kuja, we have come. 
Weja kuja, thou hast Mweja kuja, you havtf come. 

come; 
Weja kuja, he or she Weja kuja, they have come, 
has come ; etc. 

Past Tense, 

The first past is formed by changing the final -a 
into-i^, — 

Sing. Plur. 

KejiUi I came ; Tejile^ we came. 

Wejile, thou camest ; Mwejiky you came. 
Wejile, he or she came ; Wejile, they came, etc. 

The other form of the past is the same as the first 
followed by the infinitive, as — 

Sing. Plur. 

Nejile kuja, I came ; Tejile kuja, we came. 

Wejile kuja, thou camest ; Mwejile kuja, you came. 
Wejile kuja, he or she came ; Wejile kuja, they came, 

etc. 
Futwre Tense, 

This tense retains the infinitive ku- throughout, 
as — 

Nikuja, I will come ; Tikuja, we will come. 

Ukuja, thou wilt come ; Mukuja, you will come. 

Ukuja, he or she will Wekuja, they will come, 
come ; etc. 

Narrative Tense, 

This tense inserts -ke- after the pronominal prefix, 
as — 



SAGALLA DIALECT. 65 

Siag. Plur. 

Ni-ke-jay and I came ; Tt-ke^a, and we came. 
U-ke-ja, and thou camest ; Mu-ke-joj and you came. 
A'ke-ja, and he or she We-ke-ja, and they came, etc. 
came ; 

IMPESATIVE MOOD. 

Sing. Plur, 

Njuu, come thou ! Njuuni^ come ye ! 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Sing. Plur. 

Nije^ may I come ; TV/e, may we come. 

Uje^ mayest thou come ; Muje^ may you come. 
Eje, may he or she come ; Weje^ may they come, etc. 

Some verbs, as hukcda, to be cunning, kugada, to bq 
idle, etc., have a past form with a present meaning. 
These insert -no- between the pronominal prefix and 
the verb, as — 

Na-norkalilef I am cunning. 
Ta-^a-gadUe, we are idle. 

The following verbs take this form : — 

litiMa, to be fierce. Kukula, to be hard. 

KukaUiy to be cunning. Kugada, to be idle. 
Kuharaj to be bitter, changes the -a into -are, as — 
^Gwa-na-ha/r-a/re, it is bitter. 

Some verbs, as kuwasa, to be bad, kulua, to be dirty, 
make their present tense by inserting -no- between the 
pronominal prefix and the verb, and changing the final 
letter of the verb into -i, as — 

Chorna-wasi, it is bad. 
U-na-lui^ yovx. axe ^mcVt^ . 



66 ELEMENTARY IXTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE. 

The verb kuicetiiy to know, has only a present and 
past tense — 

Present Tense: 

Sing. Plnr. 

NarjLaweniy I know ; Tanaweniy we know. 

Unaiveni, thou knowest ; Munaweniy you know. 
Anaweni, he or she knows ; Wanaweni^ they know. 

Past Tense, 

Sing. Plur. 

Xeweniy I knew ; Teweni, we knew. 

Uweniy thou knewest ; Mmoeniy you knew. 

Aweniy he or she knew ; Wexoeniy they knew. 

The verbs kushaiay to love, and kutlyoa, to begin, 
ai^ often used in their past form to denote a present 
meaning, as — 

Nashailey I love or I have loved. 
TatlyoUey we begin or we have begun. 

The verbs kulaho, to forget, and ktdemOy to be 
unable, may be called deponents, as they have a 
passive form with an active signification — 

NfdaJiO, I forget. 
TalmiOy we are unable. 

Some verbs change their root vowel and stem 
vowel in forming their past tense, as — kuUda, to 
sleep. 

The past tense is ncMsy for ncUalUe, I slept. 

AUXILL^lBY VERBS. 

The verbs used as auxiliaries are as follows : — 
KvJcaMa, to be. Kutvlay to continue. Kudua, to 
finish. KunvcdVa, to finish. Kvjay to come. Kudimay 
to he able. Kiifweniy to become one, or to behove one. 
A^tistj^a, to leave, Kulega, to refuse. 



SAGALLA. DIALECT. 67 

KvkdUay with its various parts, is used to express 
continuity ; it is followed by either the infinitive or 
the 'ke- tense — 

Nakalla hugenda, I am still goiag. 
Nuo ni-ke-dea, I am still doing (it). 

Neluo ni-ke-lisa, I was still feeding. 

Kutula is used to express the idea of repetition ; it 
is followed by the verb in the infinitive — 

Nitula kugeiida, I will go again. 

Situla kuseka, I will not langh again. 

Kudua and kv/nialila are both used to strengthen 
the present perfect — 

Namalila kuleta, I have fibished to bring. 

JXadiui kukama, I have finished to milk. 

Kvja is use 1 as an auxiliary to form the present a ad 
past tenses — 

Weja kvja, ^ they have come. 

Wejile kvja, they came or had come. 

Can is expressed by the appropriate tenses of 
kudinia — 

Nadima kurumagiay I am able to bear (it). 

Mai/ ^^^ might, where they imply a purpose, are 
expressed by the subjunctive — 

Nihawe meji ninwe, give me water that I may 
drink. 

Where they imply lawfulness, by lagelage, bad ; 
fido, right ; and kurigida, to forbid, as — 

Nikawalva tindi zako, n^lagektge ? If I pluck your 
tomatoes, is it wrong ? or we should say, Is it wrong 
for me to pluck your tomatoes 1 

Kuiwa nifvlo ? to steal is it right 1 

Kukoza mwiti v!gu, kwanarigido, to burn this w'ood, 
18 forbidden. 



68 EI.EMENTARY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE. 

Where they imply power, by kudima, with the 
infinitive. 

Mtist is expressed by. suti or Iiatta, with the 
subjunctive. 

Ought is expressed by hufweni, to behove, to 
concern ; haha^ better. 

Yanifweni kugala, it concerns me to go, i, e, I ought 
to go. 

Baha u/u7ne, it is better that you go out, i, e. you 
ought to go out. 

Should and would are expressed by Tnangu, or 
macha — 

MacJia nadeaije ? what should I have done 1 

Ndda ai^gufwUe, niacha ^gwazugua ndain, if it (tree) 
had not died, it would have grown up now. 

Ngera namwona, mangu nauya, if I had seen him, 
I should have returned. 

That one should have, or Why one should have, is 
expressed by inserting keja- between the pronominal 
prefix and the verb, followed by the word nini ? — 

U-keja-dea hung\ nHni ? That you should haA'e 
done thus, what is it ? i. e, why should you have done 
thus? 

The verb ku-kaUa, " to be." 

This verb has irregularities peculiar to itself. It 
has two forms of the present tense — 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

First form. Present Tense. 

Class. Sing. Plur. 

I. NakaUa, I am ; Takalla, we are. 

Wakalla, thou art ; Mwakalla, you are, 
WakaUa, he. or she is ; Wakalla, they are. 

For the other classes of substances see present tense, 
indicative mood. 



SAGALLA DIALECT. 



60 



Second form. Present Tense. 



Class. 


Sing. 


Plur. 


I. NuOj I am ; 


Tuo or tio, we are 


Uoy thou art ; 


Muo, ye are. 


Uo or eo 


, he or she is : 


Weo, they are. 


II. 'Guo, it 


is; 


/o, they are. 


III. lo, 




Zio, „ 


IV. ChiOy , 




Vio, 


V. Lyio, , 




'Geo, 


VI. LuOf , 




yt/uo, „ 


VII. Keo, , 




Veo, 


Teo, , 




Veo, 


VIII. Kuo, , 




Kuo, „ 


IX. Zt^, , 




Kuo, „ 


An imperfect 


is used — nendekalla, I am, etc. 




Past Tense. 


Class. 


Sing. 


Plur. 


I. Neluo, I 


was ; 


Teluo, we were. 


Weltio, t 


tiou wast ; 


Mweluo, you were. 


W^e/wo, h 


e or she was ; 


Weluo, they were. 


II. 'Gweluo, 


it was ; 


Yeluo, they were. 


III. 7e/i*9, 




Zeluo, „ 


IV. Cheluo, 




Veluo, „ 


V. Lyeluo, 




'Geluo, „ 


VI. Lweluo, 




Ny weluo, ,, 


VII. Ze^^w), 




Veluo, „ 


^e^wo, 


'•* 


Veluo, „ 


VIII. Kwelvx), 




Kweluo, „ 


IX. Kweluo, 




Kwelv^, „ 



Tmrmdiate Future. 

Class. Sing. Plur. 

I. Ni-kalla, I will be ; Ti-kalla, we will be. 

U-kalla, thou wilt be ', Mu-ltalla,^<^N5c^*^\5fe. 
r/^rtf/<^, he or she will be •, We-l^alU, W^i -«^^^ 



70 ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE. 

The final letter -a in this tense is often chansrei 
into a^ga — Ni-hall a^ya, I will be. 

Mediate Future, 
Class. Sing. Plur. 

I. Ni-je-kalla, I will be ; Ti-je-haUa^ we will be. 

Uje-kalla, thou wilt be ; Mu-je-kaVay you will be. 

rje-kaUa, he or she will We-je-kalla, they will be, 
be ; etc. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Sing. Plur. 

Kalla, be thou ; KaUeni, be ye. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Class. Sing. Plur. 

I. Ni-kalhy may I be. Ti-kaVe^ may we be. 

U-kalle, may est thou be. Mu-kaUe, may you 1 e. 
A-kcUle, may he or she be. JFa-kalle, may they be. 

For other forms of this verb see subjunctive mood, 
p. 53. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

The infinitive and participle have the same form, 
as — 

KvJcalla hung\ nHni ? Being thus, what is the 
leason 1 or what is the reason of l^eing thus t 

The negative is made by prefixing the usual negative 
sign si-, etc. ; see the verb. 

There is another form of the verb ** to 6e," ni, and 
a negative si. It is used for all persons and numbers ; 
as a copulative, it merely connects two notions 
together without reference to time or place, as — 

Te/iz ni 7/angUf tliis is mine. 
y^^m ni 7nbwaa, I am great. 



8AGALLA DIALECT. 71 

Mlungu 'gwako ni ndungu ^gwaloli, your God is a 
good God. 

TO HAVE. 

To have is expressed in two ways — 

1. By the verb ** to be'* followed by naj as — 

iVwo na, I am with, i. e. I have. 

When the object is to be denoted, the appropriate 
relative particle must be added to na-y as — 

J^tu) norchOf I have it. 

NdkaUa na-go, I have them. 

Teluo na-lyOy I had it. 

Kalla na-chOf have it. 

Nikalle nchcho may I have it. 

2. By kuwesi, to have, as Nawesi, I have. 

Present Tense. 
Class. Sing. Plur. 

I. Nawesi or nanawesiy I have ; Tanaweaiy we have. 
Wcmawesi or unawesi, thou Mwanawesi, you 

hast ; have. 

Anawesi, he or she has ; Wanawesi, they 

have. 
Past Tense. 

Class. Sing. Plur. 

I. Newesi, I had ; Tewesi, we had. 

Uwesi, thou hadst ; Muwesi, you had. 

Awesif he or she had ; Weweai, they had. 

This last tense is rarely used. 
The negative of these tenses is formed by prefixing 
the usual negative sigu. 

ADVERBS. 

Adverbs generally follow the words they o^ualif y — 
^ora kiranij speak properly, Mb\oaa muuo,N's^"^\sv^. 



72 ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE. 

Substantives are sometimes made to serve as adverbs 
by the use of the preposition kwa or nay as — 

Kwa kasidiy purposely. 
Kwa nguvu, by force. 
Na isege, quickly. 

Some nouns expressing quality may be used 
adverbially — 

Wagora/iUo, you speak truly. 

Chanuka lagelage, it smells badly. 

The English adverb very may be expressed by the 
words na ndigi — 

Tungura na ndigi ! sleep very much ! 
Gora na ndigi ! speak very loudly ! 

Adverbs of negation and affirmation are as follows — 

Haiye or hai, no. 

li or liiy no. 

Mbai, no. 

Hatta, no. 

He or eee, yes. 

Kila, indeed. 

lUver is expressed by niajua ^gose, every day, and 
kuttda, to continue, as — Mwatula hagawha^ you are 
always talking. 

Never is expressed by rva lyingi and hatvXay as — 

Na lyhigi sikukawa, I will never give you. 

Uhatula sumwona, if you continue you shall not see 
him, or you shall never see him. 

PREPOSITIONS. 

There are but few prepositions in the Sagalla 
dialect; they are chiefly these: kwa, for; na or m, 
with ; keh, in ; ya, of ; atigoy or ; hatta, until ; amioen, 
inside ; ko or uko, upon, of time — 

Xwa has the force of to, as — 

Genda kwa abaj go to my taWies. 



8A6ALLA DIALECT. 73 

Na denotes instrument or object with and by — 

Mrihe na rungu, beat him with a club. 

Navlagilo id njala, I am killed with hunger. 

Kele has the force of in or near, as — 

Keh nyvmbay in or near the house. 

Kele mvnti v!gu^ in or at this tree. 

Ya or -a with the appropriate prefix is nearly 
always translated by of, as — 

MdAi wa ndigi, a man of strength. 

Prepositions are frequently expressed by the applied 
form of the verb, as — 

Kvlima, to hoe ; Xulimila, to hoe for. 

From, of time, is expressed by ku/uma, to come out, 
as — 

Kvfuma ijuzi hatta Uh, from the other day until 
to-day. 

From is also expressed by the subjunctive, as — 

Nije 7ia ilyi, from the time I came until now. 

Until f 08 far as, of time and space, are expressed by 
hatta, as — 

Genda hatta kwake, go as far as his place. 
Mdqfwe hatta eje, wait until he come. 

Uko or ko is used to express in, on, upon, of time — 

Ko hamhiri, in the beginning. 
Ko ijuzi, upon the other day. 

CONJUNCTIONS. 

There are but few conjunctions in the Sagalla 
dialect. They are chiefly these : wa, and -^ ela^ hut ,, 
a^o, or; ima, or ; hijoani, ior. 



74 EFiBMBNTARY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LAN6UA0E. 

iVa is often dispensed with by the use of the -ka- 
tense — 

Ni-ka-genda, and I went. 

I ft »mce, et<;., is expressed by the use of the con- 
ditional tenses. 

In order that, etc., is expressed by the use of the 
subjunctive. 

JClainMy nevertheless, is a compound conjunction. 

INTERJECTIONS. 

The interjections of the Sagalla dialect are more 
tnvsily px'onounced thin written, they are therefore 
In^t letvrnt from the natives, both for the sake of their 
|>it>tvor pi*onunciation and proper application. 

The following are a few : — 

Fe ! or It ! Expression of invocation. 

Woi ! „ surprise. 

IIW / „ „ 

Poo I „ contempt. 

Ke/uH/ „ „ 

Inde I Come on ! let us go ! 
Xoko ! 



ft fi 



Ola, ati, atigo, atigoni, ado, all have pretty much 
the same meaning — look here, I sa}', etc., but in order 
t<> use them properly, nothing but frequent intercourse 
with the natives will suffice. 

ENCLITICS, ETC. 

The following words may be called enclitics : — 

Ri is suffixed to substantives and adjectives thus : — 
[/?i was probably formerly Ari, notice the phonetic 
changes.] 

Kaleri, not a very long time, from kale. 

Kaileri, only twice, from kailL 
AVc/dac/iert, only a little (thing), from kicluiche. 
J/q/'of'/, only one f from 'nxojn. 



SA6ALLA DIALECT. 75 

Ba is suffixed to pronouns, substantives, adjectives, 
and verbs, and only used in interrogations — 

Ichiha ? this ? 

Wandu-ba ? men ? 

Wcdoli-ha ? good ] 

Walirtiorba ? are you hoeing ? 

'Ga is suffixed to verbs to denoto continuity or the 
idea of future — 

Nanadeor^gat I am in the habit of doing (it). 
Ni'limor^ga, I will hoe. 

Irtia^ or nva, is often suffixed to verbs in the impera- 
tive mood, as — 

Letema, bring (it) then. 

Gendama^ go then. 

The following is a proclitic : — 

Ae is prefixed to verbs to denote, then why ? 

Ke-wa^gamha ? then why do you say (so) \ 

ADVERBIAL ENCLITICS. 

There are other words which might perhaps better 
be called adverbial enclitics. These differ from 
ordinary adverbs in that they are uniuterchangeable, 
i, e. they cannot be used in connection with any other 
verb or adjective than those to which they properly 
belong. They intensify rather than qualify the 
words with which they are connected — 

Chwi is only used with kunyamal<v, to be silent — 

Nyammia chwi, be very mute. 
Chululu is only used with ikumi, ten — 

Ihwmi chidvlti, ten and only ten. 
Buu is only used with kunuka — 

Chanuka buu, it sia^^ Vq>\ yv^^ . 



76 ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE. 

Lu is only used with mhundu, red. 

Mkundu lu, very red ; the lu may be repeated any 
number of times accoiding to the intensity of redness. 

Pi ovfi is used only with onyiluf black — 

Onyiiu pi, very black ; the pi or Jl may be repeated 
any number of times according to the intensity of 
blackness. 

Tse is used only with omnyangi, white — 

Omnyangi tse, very white ; tae may be repeated any 
number of times according to the intensity of white- 
ness. 

Doo is used only with kvJceaua, to fade, or to 
become any colour approaching red or yellow. 

Chakesua doo, it is fading, or becoming red or 
yellow. 

Go is used only with kugora, to speak — 

Ncigora go, I have said everything. 

Ku is used only with huhula, to be hard — 

Chanakulile hi, it is very hard. 

T^^ku is only used with kunianga, to be fast — 

Ghanianga tuku, it is very fast. 

Ng^a is only used with kuoma, to dry — 

Chamna ng*a, it is very dry. 

jVg\ve is also used with kuonia, to dry — 

Chaoma ng'we 'ng*a, it is very, very dry. 
N^g^o is used only with negative verbs — 

Si-shaia ng*o, I shall not love at all. 



PART II. 
ENGLISH-SAGALLA VOCABULARY. 



All substantives are written in the singular. Adjectives and 
pronouns written with the hyphen take the variable prefix. 
All verbs are wiitten in the infinitive mood, the sign of which 
is ku-. 

ABBREVIATIONS. 

Gram. = grammar ; condit. tense = conditional tense ; demonst. 
= demonstrative ; pron. = pronoun ; conj. = conjunction ; 
lit. = literal ; T. V. = transitive verb ; I. V. = intmnsitive 
verb.- 



Abandon, to, ku-siga. 
Abash, to, ku-fusha waya. 
Abate, to, ku-gotua, ku-uya 

nyuma ; — to cause to, ku-go- 

tusha. 
Abdicate, to, ku-siga, ku-taga. 
Abdomen, kifu. 
Abhor, to, ku-menya ; — to 

cause to, ku-menyesa. 
Abhorrence, umenyo. 
Abide, to, ku-kalla, ku-sinda, 

ku-tula ; — to cause to^ ku- 

kallisha, ku-sindisa, ku-tuli- 

sha. 
Abiding, kn-kalla. 
Ability, ndigi, ku-dima. 
Able, to be, ku-dima ; — to cause 

to be, ku-dimisha ; — v^t to 

be, ku-lemo. 
Abolish, to, ku-siga. 
Abound^ to, ku-juh^ ku-era, ku- 

kalla, nyingi ; — to cause to, 

\iU'juz&, ku-eresha. 
AbotU, 8a, ngera, avui^na. 



Above, igulu. 

Abroad, shigati. 

Abscess, kilonda. 

Absent, he is, seo. 

Absent, to be, ku-soeka. 

Absolution, ku-sigo. 

Absolve, to, ku-siga. 

Absorb, to, ku-nwa, ku-onia, 

ku-mila. 
Abstain, to, ku-lega, ku-siga. 
Abundance, -ngi, henga. 
Abuse, to [bywords'], ku-tukaua, 

ku-rasha. 
Accept, to, ku-usa, ku-shaia. 
Acceptance, ku-usa, ku-shaia. 
Accident, 'dengwa, manza. 
Accompany, to, ku-irima. 
Accomplish, to, ku-malila, ku- 

duisa. 
Accord, o7ie, ngolo moju [lit. one 

heart], 
Acco^int, to, ku-tala, ku-wata 

sabu. 
Accumulate, to, ku-juzila. 
1 -/Icciirate, to be^ kvv.-k2J>fcwaa.^ Iisl^- 



78 



VOCABULARY. 



•-liNii *•*>?, to K\ ku-kelemelo. 
•MtiAi/i«»», ma^^ro» niaxiginro. 
.■livwA*» tK ku-^>rera ; — faisely, 
i\\ kiMi^irini. 

.4ix*Mv^i'm« h\ ku-ilisa, 

Ak^Ax'^ /t», ku OmrisiA, ku-lya, ku- 

luiua, ku-:»haha. 
Ai'lH^^^^.'xtiK^ Uk ku-niinaf^a, 

ku-shaia, ku>iiumuHa, ku-du- 

JiVHiUHl, ti^ ku-maiiyisa. 

Ai>{Hit'A\\ to^ ku-shaia [aee ac- 

Ai'i^uify^ tOy kU'pata, ku-dea. 

-■<iN/M>'Y, tOy ku'siga. 

••liTtvw, /(> bey ku-kalla kizeme- 

niuui. 
Act, to, ku-dea. 
.U'tion, kideo. 
Aihl upy to, kutala. 
AiU, /(), ku'juzila. 
Adhen'f to, ku-wata, ku-nana ; 

— to cau-sc tOy ku-watisa, ku- 

nasH. 
AtfJtHYtU, avui ua. 
Adjourn, to, ku-dila ; — to cause 

to, ku-dilisa. 
At^urc, to, ku-uwesa mguli, ku- 

giniuvsha. 
Aiimiir, to, ku-shaia. 
Admit, to, ku-ingiza, kii-isa [see 

Admittance, ku-iiic^ilo ; there is 
no (uimittance, sikuingilo. 

Admonish, t4}, ku-funda. 

Adojity tOy ku-lela, ku-wata. 

Adore, to, ku-voia, ku-tasa, ku- 
loiul^a, ku-shaia na ndigi. 

Adorn, to^ ku-ingiza, ku-riga. 

Adornment [for a bride], ma- 
h\sa. 

AdultenUey to, ku-iiinganya. 

,^f/Hl^t^rtr, mlaki, Jcitiiiga cha 
wakv. 



^Adultery, to commit, ku-laka, 

ku-zinga, ku-iwa moke. 
Advance, to, kn-suguta hambi- 

ri ; — to cause to, ku-sngusa 

hambiii ; — goods, etc,, to, ku- 

kopesha. 
Advantage, mbambara, faida. 
Adversity, mashaka. 
Advise, to, ku-hawa gore. 
Advocate, to, ku-gorera. 
Adze, to, ku-songola, ku-sema. 
Afar, kulele, sa ndigi. 
^Affair, gore, undu. 
Affairs, vilanibo, maundu. 
Afflict, to, ku-tirira, ku-sirima ; 

— to catise to, ku-siiiinisa. 
Affliction, mashaka, buga. 
Afraid, to be, ku-koga. 
After, nyuma, ima. 
^*Aftemoon, hafuka. 
Afterwards, konyuma. 
Again, sena, kaili. 
Against, to stand, ku-kalla avui 

na ; — to lean, ku-tsinila. 
Age, ubwaa. 
,^Ageit, -*gosi. 
Aggravate, to, ku-koronga. 
Agitate, to, ku-vuruga, KU-shu- 

hashuha, ku-nyavura. 
Agony, ku-lumo na ndigi. 
Agree, to, ku-sikilana, ku-pata- 

na ; [to be like], ku-kata- 

na. 
Agreement, malagano. 
Aground, msangeni. 
Ailment, ukongo. 
Aim, to take, ku-katanisa. 
Air, mbeo. 

^kin, mbari, kichuku. 
Alarm, to, ku-kumba oga ; to 

be alarmed, ku-ingilo ni oga, 

ku-dea oga. 
Alike, to be, ku-katana, ku-kalla 

karakara. 
Alive, to be, ku-kalla moyo, ku- 
kalla iQzim&. 



VOCABULARY. 



79 



All, -ose, putu. 

Allege^ to, KU-gora. 

Allot, to, ku-sara. 

Allow y to, ku-siga, ku-rumagia. 

Almighty, mwenyi ndigi zose. 

Almost, avui. 

Alms, sadaka. 

, Aloft, igulu [in, heavens; lugu- 

lu, lU. on the top q/"]. 
Alone, king'weri, -eke, -en. 
Along vrith, to go, ku-genda na- 

ye ; — side, to place, ku-ikanya 

Da mbao \lit. to place along- 
side each other\. 
Aloud, na ndigL 
Already, ndamu, ndakwen, i- 

lyen. 
Also, sena, na. 
Although, hatta, kwena ; Pcwena 

sinda kunulaga], although you 

continue to kill m^. 
Altogether, andu kumoiu, ngolo 

moju, -ose putu, ngila inqju. 
Always, majua 'gose, matuku 

'gose. 
Arrvaze, to, ku-kurumusha, ku- 

shinisha. 
Amazed, to he, ku-kurumua, ka- 

shinika. 
Ambassador, mshiki, mtumi. 
Am^nd, to, ku-boesa, T. V, ; ku- 

galuka, I. V. 
Amidst, *gati na 'gati. 
Amiss, to do, ku-kosa. 
Among, to he, ku-kalla aueo. 
Amuse, to, ku-helea, ku-seke- 

sa. 
Amusement, ku-seka, maseko, 

hako. 
> An,cestors, wandu wa kale. 
'Ancient, -a kale na kale. 
And, na, sena. 
Angel, malaika. 
Anger, hari. 
Atiger, to, ku-kumba hari, ku- 

jo3a hari, ku-asila. 



Angle, mbembe. 

Angry, to he, ku-asilo, kubia, 
ku-kalla na hari. 

Animal, nyamandu. 

Ankle, ungo 'gwa kigulu. 

Anklet, irere lya kigulu. 

Ann^mnce, to, kii-gorem. 

Annoy, to, ku-sirimisa, T. V. ; 
ku-gama, /. V, ; ku-sirima, 
/. V, ; ku-koronga, /. V, ; ku- 
emeka, /. F, 

Annoyance, ku-sirinia. 

Anoint, to, ku-vila mavnta, ku- 
sara mavuta. 

Another, -zima. 

Another day, iau. 

An/Other's, -a wandu. 

Answer, to [to ansiver wlun 
called], ku-tika. 

Antelope, Sarabe, Shakwa, Ma- 
kuli, Isha, Mbala, Ngulungu, 
Dom, Gwali, Nausi, Fgalu : 
names of antelopes found in 
Taita. 

Ant-hear, loma. 

Ant-hill, mbalyo. 

Anticipate, to, ku-lolila. 

Ants, sambii'o, very small hlack 
ants; salafu, hrown biting 
ants; tlyeha, white ants; 
ngumbingumbi, ants in their 
flying state ; minyu, hlack 
biting ants. 

Anus, kiviudu. . 

^Anvil, fulai. 

Anxious, to be, ku-lya ngolo. 

Any, -ose. 

Apart, king'weri, -eke. 

Ape, fue. 

Apostle, mtumi. 

Apparition, kijanijani. 

Appear, to, ku-oneka. 

Appearance, ku-oneka. 

Appetise, to, ku-kumba beha. 

Appetite^ beha [lit, a Zouqiwi 



80 



TOCABUIaABT. 



Affple of the eye, manda 'gwa 

iziso. 
Ajtply oneself y to, ka-dea mwen. 
Appoint, to, ka-ika. 
Aj)proach, to, ku-soguta ; — to 

cause to, ku-sugusa. 
A])prove, to, ku-rumagia, ku- 

shaia, ku-dumuBila. 
Apron, mshuni. 
Argv^, tOj ka-dea nganyi. 
Arguinent, ngauyi 
Aright, karakara, kirani. 
Ai'ise, to, ku-uka ; — to cause to, 

ku-ukisa. 
Arm, inkono ; — under part of 

the, tsikila. 
Amuidillo, loina. 
Armpit, kwaia. 
Artyniui, igasi lyose. 
Arrtiutf^, to, ka*ika kirani, ku- 
kuniUn chcta [lit, to pile up\, 
{of tiretrooti). 
Arrii^il, ku-tika. 
Jrricey to, ku-iika, ku-busa ; — 
to cause to, ku-lisa. 
^ An\nv, iwaiio ; — to feather an, 
ku^^vanika. 
Jiirrit, nasi [lit, mu9cle]. 
Js, Siv; <M it ircw, sa kweii ye- 

luo ; as you like, umwen. 
Aacemi, to, ku-joka, ku-kwela ; 
— to cause to, ku-josa, ku- 
kweTa. 
JaJmmed, to be, ku-ona haya, 
ku-wosi waya, ku-fwa waya. 
^ Ashes, ivu. 
Amle, mbale. 
Ask, to, ku-kota, ku-iiza. 
Asleep, to he, ku-tungura, ka-la- 
la, ku-kalla haring 'eni ; — to 
cause to be, ku-tungorisa, kn- 
kumba haring 'a. 
Ass, mchunffu. 

vl.<tse2n^«,to,kxi-kwoganya»T. V.; 
ku-kwogana, /. V, 
^Assembly, makwogano, ikwani. 



Assent, to. kn-mmagia, ku-sha- 

ia, ka-dumnsila, ku-tika. 
Assert, to, ku-gora, ku-gamba, 

kn-uza. 
Assist, to, kn-taria. 
Astonish, to, kn-ahinisha, ku- 

kununosha. 
Astonished, to be, ku-shinika, 

ku-kummua. 
Astonishment, ku-shinika. 
Astride, tandahala. 
At, kwa, kele, case in -ni, 
followed by pronou/ns in kw- ; 
a^ first, jakoi jakundi, jandi. 
Atone for, to, ku-boesa [lit. t^* 

repair]. 
Attach, to, ku-wata ; — to cause 

to, kuwatisa. 
Attack, to, ku-kwita. 
Attend, to, ku-dafwarira ; — to, 

to, ku-sikizila. 
Audible, to be, ku-sikilika. 
*AuiU [the father* s sister], mama. 
^Authority, ndigi. 
Avail, to, ku-fweni. 
Avarice, iziso. 
Avoid, to, ku-kila. 
Avow, to, ku-gema. 
Awake, to, ku-uka, LV,; ku-u- 
kisa, T, V, 
Away, to take, ku-gensa noko. 
'Axe, isoka. 

B. 

BcCboon, fue. 
iBaby, mwaua mkoo. 
ipBacheloi', mgaro. 
i ^Bcuhelor^s house, garo. 

Back, mgongo. 

Back of the head, kiri. 

^ack, to lie on one's, ku-lala ki- 
ngazi, ku-tungura kingazi. 

Backbone, iwindi lya mgongo. 

Backward, kinyuma. 

Bad, lagelage ; -wasi, chanawasi, 
it is bad ; — to inake, ku-wa- 



VOCABULARY. 



81 



sisa ; [to use had language^ ku- 
lagalaga. 

Badness, olagelage. 
9 Bag, dau, a small bag sewn up 
one side ; kiondo, a small bag 
toitJunU seam ; kikuchu, a tri- 
angular bag made of skin; 
kitasi, a large bag ; mkoba, a 
large ba>g, generally a TnaUing 
bag ; mfiiikoi generally a 
Tnedicine bag ; wararu, a very 
large sack. 

Bait, kilembwilembwi. 

Bait, to, ku-ika kilembwile- 
mbwi. 

Bake, to, ku-ocha. 

Bald head, kongola. 

Baldness, ukongola. 

Ball, mpira. 

Bamboo, mi-augi. 

Banana, irugu ; — ripe, ivunde. 

Banana tree, ndembo. 
^Band of soldiers, ifuko (?). 

Bangle, irere. 

Banish, to, ku-gusa, ku-funya. 
^Banner, kipeo. 

mBaohdb tree, mlamba ; fruit, ki- 
lamba. 

Baptize, to, ku-kumba mejini 
\IU. to throw into water] ; kii- 
tarisa meji [lit, to sprinkle] ; 
ku-8ukila meji [lit, to throw 
water]. 

Barb, of an arrow, kirao. 
^Barbarian, Mwibabu : a tribe 
of wild people supposed to have 
once lived in Taita, 

Barber, mhari. 

Bare, tuhu, mdu wa dmi [lU. a 
simpleton]. 

Bargain, zogori. 

Bargain, to, ku-teta zogori, ku- 
zogora. 

Bark, of a tree, ikoko, iganda ; 
unhark, to, ku-shuhtila, ku- 
konola, ku-gandula. 



Bark, to, ku-teta. 

Barrel, gun, mrumo *gwa bu- 
nduki. 

Barrai [animal], koloi. 
^Barren [ground], bahawa. 

Barrier, isanzu. 

Barrier, to make a, ku-hilila. 

Base person, mdu wa uduu. 

Bask, to, ku-bugga ; to bask in 
the sun, ku-bugga ijua. 

Basket, ikapu. 

Bat, mboo. 

Bathe, to, ku-oga, ku-bung'a. 

Baiter, to, ku-kwita, ku-shana, 
ku-riba, ku-daha. 

Battle, uta. 

Battle, to, ku-lwana. 

Be, to, ku-kalla ; nuo, / am ; uo, 
thou art ; uo, or eo, lie or she 
is; tuo, we are; muo, you. 
are ; weo, they are. 

Beads, lukangi, ngangi, usha- 
nga ; samisami, red beads ; 
sawali, dark blue beads ; ma- 
zia, white beads ; kiketi, light 
blue beads; mkonya, black 
beads; chuma, light blue 
beads ; ngoningoni, lustre 
beads; burinaro za nyilu, 
dark blue ring beads ; burinaro 
za makumbo, green ring beads. 

Beak, mlomo. 

Beam, sun, mlengezi. 

Beans, ngunde ; cooked beanSy 
kimanga. 
^ear, b^ore marriage, to, ku- 
mida. 

BearfruU, to, ku-vala. /. V. ; 
kuvaza, T, V, 
^Bear, to [sniffer], ku-rumagia. 

Beard, gafa. 

Beard, goafs, sombe. 

Beast, nyamandu. 

Beat, to, ku-kwita, ku-riba, ku- 
shana, ku-daha, ku-'diza ku- 
chafa. 



82 



VOCABULARY. 



Heauti/ui, -lolL 

BitnU^, nloli 

BffctiHsey kwani. 

Beclimt tOy kn-kunjrira. 

B^^omn^ la» kii-kalla, ku-uya. 

Beiiy ulili. 

BeiiiiiHg^ matandiko. 

iiftf, nyuki. 

Jke/y uyama ya ng'ombe. 

Brihirff mwatu. 

/^rtT. lyovi ; sictet beer, ma- 

raini. 
BiTt^ky iarge duHg^ Iwembe. 
Be/alif tOy ku'gwo, ku-doka. 
Be/ore [of order], hambiri ; [of 

thne], irabele. 
^^y ^^ kn-lomba, ku-voia. 
Beg iy t4>y kU'Vaza. 
• Bf'giftir, mlombi. 
Bfgitiy tOy ku-tlyoa, ku-andika, 

ku-ama. 
BegiHHingy harobirL 
Bfheoiiy tOf ku-pasa cboDgo, ku- 

diisula chongo. 
Bihhidy uyuma. 
Behohiy to, ku-lola, ku-zigaua. 
Belchy tOy ku-geruka. 
Belif^fy idnnmsL 

BeiietYj to, ku-shaia, ku-dumusa. 
BeliefYry mdiimusi. 
Belly kiiomauii. 
^Bellows, nuvua. 
Bflhfy kifu. 
Belongy to, to, -a wandu [lit. 

aHother*s]. 
Bel0i:^l, mshailo. 
Below, isi, msangeni [lU, on the 

gnmml]^ 
BfM, mkoa. 
Bemi, to, ku-gomeka, /. V, ; ku- 

gomesa, T,y, 
BmddomiytOykW'dAmiksi, I. V, ; 

ku-daroisa, T, V, 
^tJtentJi, isi. 
^"^^J^, fo, ku'fwenl 
-*V4^ 4?Ar, ku-gomeksL, 



Berry y ndembe. 

Beseech, to, ku-lalama. 

Beside, sena. 

Best, to he, ku-isa [lU, to 

8urpass\ ; -loli na ndigi [lit. 

very good\. 
Betray, to, ku-futoya, kn-gora. 
^Betrcih, to, kii-kamba ulanga 

[lit, to make love]. 
Better, to be, ku-kalla behaba- 

ha ; / Tiad better, baha. 
Bettoeen, 'gati na 'gati. 
Beware, to, ka-lola, ku-manya, 

ka-kalla kiranL 
Bewilder, to, kn-kamba chongo, 

/. V, ; kn-kambisa chongo, 

T, V. 
Bewitch, to, ku-loga. 
Beyond, chambuko, kwa ha- 
mbiri. 
Bid, to, ku-oza. 
Big, -bwaa ; how big is it? cba- 

luuganije 1 
mBilly a kind of axe, mgundu. 
Bind, to, ku-funga. 
Bird, nyonyi. 
Birds of prey, sangangoju, fuka- 

fuka most, Iwlgi, inowe. 
Bitter, to be, ku-harara, ku- 

bia. 
Blab, mdu wa duu [lit. a sim- 
pleton], 
•Blacky -nyilu. 
Blackberry, mtale. 
mBlacksmiUi, mshani. 
Bladder, seke. 
Blade of grass, mgina [lit. thr, 

young grans]. 
Blaze, to, ku-waka. 
Bleed, to, ku-fuma bigati, 1, V: ; 

ku-segeta,/. V. ; ku-seta, /. V. ; 

kn-segesa, T. V. ; [to cup], ku- 

lumika. 
Blend, to, ku-runganya. 
BUss, to, ka-bariki. 
Bliiid, to be, "kxv-twa mew. 



VOCABULARY. 



83 



Blind of one eye, kifondo, cho- 

ngo. 
Blindncst, udani [?] 
Blister, iwicha. 
Bloody bigati. 

Blood from the nose, mwanga. 
Blood-vessel, hasi \lit. muscle]. 
Blossom, kilua. 
Blossom, to, ku-funya vilaa, ku- 

usa ; the trees are in blossom, 

miti yausa. 
Blow, to, wUh the mouth, ku-fu- 

rira ; — as the wind, ka-vuma. 
'^lue beads, sawali, kiketL 
Blue vitriol, chutna. 
Blunder, to, ku-kosa. 
Blunt, to be, ku^jifwa, ndagala 

yajifwili, th£ knife is blunt. 
Blustering fellow^ kigendeke, 

makigendeka. 
Boast, to, ku-kulika. 
.^ Body, muli ; dead, garia ; of 

soldiers, ifuko [?]. 
Boil, tsumusi. 
Boil over, to, ku-pachahika. 
Boil, to, ku-isha, ku-teleka. 
Bold, -lume. 
^Bo^idman, msunyi. 
Bone, iwindi. 
Book, chuo. 
Boot, kilatu. 
border, mwaka. 
^Border, to, ku-akana. 



Bough, mbandi. 
^Boundary, mwaka. 
gBow, ndana, 
Bow, to, ku-damisa, T. V, ; ku- 

damika, /. V, 
Bowl, kihrro. 
Box, sanduku, kasha. 
•Boy, mwana wa lume. 
Bracelet, irere. 
Brain, ongo, suko [?]. 
Bran/ih, mbandi, mbasha. 
Brand, kizlnga. 
^Brass wire, itsango. 
Brave, -lume ; a brave man, ■ 

ngumbao, ing*oni. 
Bravery, ulume. 
Breach, ilanga, ngila. 
Bread, from Indian meal boiled, 

kinolo ; from Kaffir corn,, ki- 

uaburi. 
Breadth, ushabwa. 
Break, to, ku-vunja, T. V. ; ku- 

chusa, T. F. ; ku-dusula, T. V. ; 

ku-vunjika, I, V, ; ku-chuka, 

/. V, ; ku-dusuka, /, F. ; — 

winddownvxirdSfto, ku-shuta. 
Break off, to, ku-shaula, T. V. ; 

ku-shauka,/. V, ; — topieceSyVw- 

paiapaia, T. V, ; ku-paikapai- 

ka, /. V, ; ku-barabara, T.y. ; 

ku-baiikabarika, /. F. 
Breakfast, chakula cha kupa- 

tsa. 



Bore, to, ku-pola ; to be bored, ^Breast, lagaia ;/<w7iaZ<j, iwele. 



ku-poka. 
^Bom, to be, ku-valo ; anything 
that has borne is caUed mgo- 
ma. 
Borrow, to, ku-gosha. 
^Bosom, lagaia. 
Both, -ose -ile. 
Bother, to, kn-sirima, /. F. ; ku- 



emeka, /. F, ; ku-sirimisha, •Bride, mwali. 



T, F, 

Bottle, water, kishori. 
Bottom, iai, maangeni. 



Breath, mruki. 

Breathe, to, ku-kwita mmki. 

Breathe, to [rest], ku-zumua, ku- 

tsarusa ngolo. 
Breed, to, ku-vala. 
Bribe, to, ku-hawa kindu, ku- 

nosa klndu [lit, to give a 

thing]. 



^Bridegroom, musi muke. 
Bridge, mrigo kuambuka. 
Bright, to be, Vsx-\i\^^^a». 



84 



VOCABULARY. 



BrightGiif to^ ku-hotsa, ku-su- 
gula. 

Brhig, to, ku-leta, ku-konda, 
ku-euda ; — /or, to, ku-letela ; 
— up, to, ku-lela ; — together, 
to, ku-kwoganya ; — near, to, 
ku-sugusa ; — to life, to, ku-zu- 
sha. 

Broad, shabwa. 
'Brook, kamweta. 
mBrother, -etu, etc, ; wokwetu, our 
brother ; mwana wa mawe, son 
of my mother ; mruna. 
mBrother-in-law, mlam. 

Brow, gambili. 

Bruise, to, ku-shogonola, T* V. ; 
ku-shogonoka, /. V. 

Bruised, to be, ku-ondeka. 

Brush to [scni^l, ku-hotsa ; 
[sweep], ku-shera, ku-kwoga- 
nya. 

Bntte, nyamandu. 

Bubble, ifulo. 

Bitbble, to, ku-fuma. 
* Btid, to, ku-funya mguchu [lit. 
to sprout] ; ku-fuma, to spring 
out of the ground ; ku-rua, to 
put forth leaves ; ku-zugua, to 
grow. 
^Buffalo, mbogo. 

Bug, ugunguni. 

Build, to, ku-agala. 
.building, iagalo. 



Bum, to, ku-waka ; — to cause to, 
ku-washa, ku-koza ; to con- 
sume, ku-isha, T. V, ; ku-ia, 
/. V. ; — food, ku-lungula. 

Burst, to, ku-zaia, T. V, ; ku-zai- 
ka, I. V, ', ku-rashura, T. V, ; 
ku-rashuka, /. F. ; — otU into 
tears, to, ku-^wa kulila. 

Bury, to, ku-zika. 
« '^urying-ground, kineni, ngo- 
ineni, a place where skulls are 
deposited, 
'^ush-btick, ngulungu. The 
natives are very superstitious 
about this animal; any one 
eating it mtcst not touch cattle 
nor enter a house till he has 
bathed. 

Business, undu, shauli. 

BiU, ela, ima. 

Butter, raafuta *ga ng'ombe.' 

Butterfly, kibambarisho. 
•Buttock, sbimba. 

Button, kifungu. 

Buy, to, ku-gula. 

Buyer, mguli, mzogori. 

By [after a passive verb], ni ; [of 
an instrument], kwa ; [near], 
avui ; [by the side of], kele. 

C 

Cackle, to, ku-kangashiixi. 
Ca>ge, nyumba. 



fodeka, /. V. 
mm Bull, njao. 

Bullet, risasi, iwano lya boudu* 

ki. 
Bully, makugendeka, kigendeke. 
Bump, to, ku-daha. - 

Blench, kisangu [?]. 
Bundle, ijilo, of firewood ; ipane, 

of sugar-cane. 
Burden, msigo. 
Burdan, to, ku-gwaisa, T. V. ; 

ku-gwaia, /. F. 



i^w/grc, ^0, ku-fodesa, T. V. ^Ylvl- fCaldbash, kishori ; kazama, a 



very large calabash ; boloshi, 
a small long-shaped calabash ; 
mabado, the pulp of the cala- 
bash. 

Calamity, buga. 

CaZf, ngachi, tago, a yozmg 
cow. 

Calico, nguo. 

Call, to, ku-ita. 
M^alm, to, ku-tsarusa. 

Carnel, ngamila. 

Camp, d^i 



VOCABULARY. 



85 



Can, to he able, ku-dima. 
^'aiie \hamhod\y mrangi ; stigar- 

cane, mugwa. 
^'annibalf mlyigawandu. 
Cannon, mzioga. ; 
Cap, kofia. 
^Capkiin, kilongozi. 
^Captive, msunyi. 
Capture, to, ku-wata. 
Caravan, charo. 
Caravan porter, unchukuzi, 

mtwali msigo. 
Carcase, garia. 
Care, to take, ku-inanya, ku-ka- 

11a kirani, ku-lolila ; don't 

care, sikwesi kazi [lit, there is 

nothing] ; kwauawesini ? what 

does it maUer f 
Carefxd, to he, kU-manya ki- 

rani 
Careless, -duhu \lib. worthless]. 
Caress, to, ku-sura. 
Carriage, i^ri. 
Carry, to, ku-twala, ku-duda ; 

— on the hack, ku-eleka. 



Centipede, mgiili (?), 

Centre, gati. 

Certain, fulo. 

Chaff, mafundo, kisusi. 

Chain, din a, a small chain. 

Chair, kifumbi. 

Chalice, nzani, waoneka nzani, 

they are seen one here and 

an>other there. 
Change, to, ku-galusa, T, V. ; kii- 

galula, T. V, ; ku-galuka, /. V, 
Charcoal, makala. 
J\^ Charm, uganga, mbingu, kileto. 
Chase, to [to hunt], ku-diwa ; 

— away, to, ku-gusa. 
Chastise, to, ku-'disa, ku-rasha. 
Cheap, to he, -a bule, ku-aiigiia, 

ku-hanyua. 
Cheat, mndimi, mlembi. 
Cheat, to, ku-kopa, ku-kenga. 
Cheek, idumbu. 
Cheer, to, ku-sekesa. 
Chest, lagaia. 
Chew, to [as siLgar-cane], kiilia- 

tsa ; [ — as food], ku-kakaha. 
Chicken, mwana wa nguku, tu- 

Dguku. 



Cartridge, risasi. 
^Cassava, manga. 
CaM, to, ku-taga, ku-kumba. 1 Chief, mzuri, mdu mbwaa. 
Castor-oil, mafata 'ga mbono : . JChUd, mwanake, kamwana. 
plant, mbono. 
« Castrate, to, ku-twila. 
Cat, mnyau. 
Catch, to, ku-wata. 
^aitlCs mfugo, ng'ombe. 
^Cattle-fold, boro. 
Cause, for what cause ? kwa ki- 
muni ? kwa ije ? kwani ? ku- 
dani ? Eilunganyo n'ini ? what 
is the cause ? 
Cause, to [see verhs causative], 
- Cave, mbanga. 
^ Cease raining, to, ku-ela. 
Cea>se talking, to cause to, ka 

nyamaza. 
Cea>se, to, ku-siga ; — talking, 
to, ku-nyamala. 



Childhood, unake. 
Chin, gangaha(?). 
Chisel, ndemwa. 
Choice, usaguli. 

Choke, to, ku-tswaia, ku-nyora. 
Choose, to, ku-sagiila, ku-fiinya ; 

as you choose, andu ushaia u 

mwen. 
Chop, to [as firewood], ku-paia ; 

[to cut], kutema, ku-shinja ; 

[to cut small], ku-pasapasa. 
Churn, to, ku-suka. 
Circumcise, to, ku-chwa. 
Claim, to [to take], ku-wata. 
JfClan, kichuku, lukolo. 
Clap hands, to, ku-kwita mai. 
Clasp in the arms, to, ku-fiuia. 



S6 



VOCABULARY. 



Clasp in the hand, to, ku-manzi- 
ra, ku-wata, ku-hasisa. 

Claw, Iwala. 
^Glay, ulongo. 
^Clay, red, iloiigo. 

Clean, to [by washing], ku-elsa ; 
\hy nibbing], ku-hotsa, ku-su- 
gula. 
, Clean, to be, ku-ela. 

Cleanse, to \po heaZ], ku-ambo- 
chola ; to be cleansed, ku-a- 
mbochoka. 

Clear, to be, ku-kalla mwazi, 
ku-ela. 

Cleave, to [to split], ku-bara ; 
[to unite], ku-uana. * 

Cleverness, uya, ulachu. 

Climb, to, ku-joka, ku-kwela. 

Cling, to, ku-manzira, ka-wata, 
ku-hasisa. 

Clock, saa. 

Clod, iloa, mandu. 

Close, to, kufunga, ku-rugara ; 
to close up an opening, ku- 
ulaga. 

Cloth, nguo : American sheet- 
ing, morikano ; blva calico, 
narrow, msumbuji ; bltie 
calico, wid^, mbege ; narrow 
calico, intsoromwilu ; medium 
icidth, satini ; calico with one 
red line along the border, ka- 
mwiti ; turban, kilemba ; a 
long cloth twisted and used as 
a girdle, mkumbo ; bltie 
calico with red border, kita- 
inbi. All very thin cloth is 
called kabibi. 

0iathe, to, ku-rwara. 
V Clothes, inavalo. 

Claiid, tlyara, iwengu. 
^lub, rungu. 

Clumsy, to be, ku-gwaia [lU. to* 
be heavy]. 

Coast, ujomba. 

Coaty kizibau. 



Coax, to, ku-ngo^angola. 

Cob of Indian corn, ibemba ; cob 

wUhmtt the grain, kikonzi ; 

the outer coating, ihorosho ; 

t?is beard of the cob, sombe. 
Cobweb, nyuma ya mbugi. 
Cock, jongoli ; a young cock, 

ipora. 
Cockscomb, kinyiri. 
Cocoa-nut tree, mnyanzigi. 
Cold, mbeo ; — in the head, iaa- 

ma. 
Collar of beads, kidiri. 
Collect, to, ku-kwoganya, T. V. ; 

ku-kwogana, /. V. 
Colour, ranffi. 
Colour, to, ku-vila rangL 
Com^, to, ku-ja, imp, njuu. 
Come to, to, ku-jila ; — out, to, 

ku-fuma; — doum, to, ku-jika, 

ku-selela ; — in, to, ku-ingila ; 

— up, to, ku-joka, ku-kwela ; 

— upon, to, ku-doka ; — near, 
to, ku-suguta avui ; — together, 
to, ku-kwogana ; — to life 
again, to, ku-zuka ; — to light, 
to, ku-oneka, ku-manyikana ; 

— to nothing, to, ku-uya meji,-^ 
ku-uya oa, lu-kunga Iwauya 
oa, the war-cry is nothing ; [to 
arriva], ku-fika, ku-busa ; 
[come, let us go], inde tigale. 

Comfort, to, ku-tsarusa ngolo. 
Comfortr, mtsarusi ngolo. 
Cominand, to, ku-funya mlomo, 

ku-gamba, ku-gora. 
Co^nmandment, mlomo, gore. 
Cinnmence, to, ku-tlyoa, ku-andi- 

ka, ku-ama. 
Co7nmission, to, ku-lagiza. 
Commit adultery, to, ku-Iaka, 

ku-zinga, ku-iwa muke. 
Commit, to, ku-dea. 
Common, -a wandu wose. 
GompanioUy mbetu, ours ; mbe- 

nu, yours ;Tsi\MXi, theirs. This 



VOCABULARY. 



87 



is Thot exactly a companion, but 

tltose who are wUh or belong to 

u^, etc, 
^ Company, ngam, mbazi ya nga- 

m, the company's goat, i. e. the 

goat belongs to more than one 

inan; a number of people, 

ikwani ; a small nuynber of 

people, ki-sungii ', to be in 

company with, ku-kezanya. 
Compare, to, ku-katanisa ; \to 

place together], ku-ikauya. 
Qompel, to, ku-fimga ndigi . 
Complain, to, ku-guna. 
Complete, to, ku-malila, T. V, ; 
^ ku-duisa, T, V. ; ku-dua, 
^ LV,\ ku-sila, /. V, 
Completely, kamare, putu. 
Conceal, to, ku-visa, ku-finikila. 
Concern, to, ku-fweni, chanifv^e- 

ni \lit. it concerns m^\ 
Conchfde, to, ku-dua, ku-sila. 
Condv^sion, andu kwadua. 
Condemn, to, ku-ita-ndimL 
Condtui, to, ku-gensa, ku-kal- 

yai, ku-leta, ku-t¥rala, ku- 

fisa. 
^Somfess, to, ku-gora, ku-nima- 

gia. 
Confide, to, ka-tsinila \lil. to lean 

uponC[. 
Confident, to be, ku-manya fulo 

kwen. 
Confiise, to, ku-kambisa chongo, 

T. V, ; ku-kamba chongo, 

/. V, ; ku-lahisa. 
Congeal, to, ku-gandamana. 
- Congregation, ukwani, makwo- 

gano. 
Connect, to, ku-langa, ku-nasa, 

ka-funga. 
^ Conquer, to, ku-sima. 
^ Conqueror, msimi. 

Consent, to, ku-shaia, ku-nima- 
^ gia, ku-dumusila. 
Constantly, majua 'gose. 



Constipate, to, ku-kinga mavi. 
Construct, to, ku-agala. 
Consult, to, ku-dea njama. 
, ^Consultation, ujama, mlandu, 

maneno. 
Consume, to [by eating], ku-lya ; 

[by fire], ku-isha, T. F. ; ku-ia, 

/. F. 
Consumed, to be, ku-sila, ku- 

malila. 
Contain, to, ku-twala. 
Contend, to, ku-dea nganyi, ku- 

isana, ku-simana. 
Content, to be, ku-ela ngolo, 

ngolo yaela [lit, the heart is 

at rest], ku-tsarua. 
Continually, majua 'gose. 
Continue, to, ku-tula, ku-sinda, 

ku-kalla ; — to cause to, ku- 

sindisa. 
Contract, to [to make an agree- 
ment], ku-sikilana, ku-lagana. 
Contradict, to, ku-kanya. 
Control, to, ku-hasisa, ku-ma- 

nzira, ku-wata. 
Convert, to, ku-galusa, T. V, ; 

ku-galula, T, V, ; ku-galuka, 

I.V. 
Cook, to, ku-ruga ; [to fry], ku- 

kalanga ; [to roast], ku-ocha ; 

[to boil], ku-teleka. 
,, Cooking-pot, nyungu. 
Cool, to, ku-tsarusa, T, V. ; ku- 

tsaraa, /. V. 
/Populate, to, ku-tomba, ku-e- 

mberuma, [mUgar] ; of cattle, 

ku-zigira. 
Cord [small cord], mrinsi ; 

[medium], lugoi ; [thick ropej, 

gunga. 
Cork, kifindiko. 
Cork, to, ku-findika. 
Com, Iridian, ibemba, maberaba. 

Indian corn in its various 
stages of growth : — 

Mabemba 'gafdnya niguchp 



88 



VOCABULARY. 



the sprouting stage when 
soaked in water. 
Mabemba 'gafuma, or 'gabusa, 
when it appears in the 
yrowmd, 
Mabemba 'gadea kiala, U 

shows signs of hearing. 
Mabemba 'gafahasa, it flowers. 
Mabemba ganyaza sombe, U 

hangs its heard. 
Mabemba 'gafirihisa, in its 

milky staae. 
Mabemba galasa ndoo, a 

stage furtlier. 
Mabemba 'gapuhura, it is 

full. 
Mabemba 'gaoma, it is quite 
ripe. 
^Jurn^ Kaffir^ mwemba. 

Mwemba in its variotis stages 

of growth : — 
Mwemba, 'gwauya sombe ya 
jigau, it hangs its 
head. 
'gwakwita kibala. 
'gwadea machum. 
'gwadea kivula. 
'gwaela ngoma. 
*g^vakumba mbuliilu. 
'gwaelesa. 
'gwahttcliunisa. 
'gwaoma, it is fully 
ripe. 
40^0)11 [millet], lusele. 

Coime-r, mbembe. 
^t^Oipse, gai'ia. 
Cornipt^tOf ku-nona ; [to go had], 
ku-vuiuia, ku-ola ; [to cause to 
go had], ku-olesa. 
Ciist, what did it f Zogori yake 

Cough, ikohoa. 

Cough, to, ku-kohoa. 
^Council, mlaudu, i^jaraa, mate- 
to. 
^ CoHiU, to, ku'tala, ku-watasabu. 



}) 
>» 

n 
>» 
n 



^Country, isanga. 
Courage, nlume. 
JOourt-yard [space], liia, nyua. 
Covenant, malagano. 
Cover, kifindiko. 
Cover, to, ku-finikila ;^ [with 

clothes], ku-bula. 
Covet, to, ku-kalla na tamaa, ku- 

kalla na iziso. 
Covetousness, iziso, tamaa. 
,Cow, ngombe ; a young cow, 
tago ; a cow which has horne, 
mngoma. 
Coward, mwoga. 
Cowardice, uoga. 
Crah, ngala. 

Crack, ugoru ; a crack in the 
wall through which light 
comes, nyiuyiri. 
Crack, to, ku-dea ngoru ; to 
crack a,s the earth does in dry 
weather, ku-beka. 
Cramp, to liave, ku-wata nga- 

nju. 
Crawl, to, ku-soca, ku-rambata. 
Crazy, to he, ku-kalla na mutu. 
Create, to, ku-umba. 
Creep, to, ku-soga. 
Crooked, to he, ku-gomeka. 
Crooked, to make, ku-gomesa. 
Cross, to, ku-konya, to provoke a 
quarrel ; — over to, ku-ambu- 
&a« 
Crossways, matano. 
Crosswise, kizemerumu. 
Crouch, to, ku-tugusa. 
Crucify, to [to peg ou.€], ku- 

amba. 
Crumhs, vichachevichache. 
Crush, to [to pound in a mortar], 
ku-honda; [to pound sugar- 
cane], ku-ula ; [to heat corn], 
ku-shana; [to grind], ku- 
sha. 
Cry, to, ku-lila ; {qfa eow\ ku- 
aokaj^ 




VOCABULARY. 



8g 



** Cryy to [to raise a war-cry], ku- 
kema lukungu. 

Ci-y outj to, ku-kema. 
-* Cry, [a war- cry], lukunga. W?ien 
a general aUack is made the 
warriors cry out: Mwasasi, 
mwasasi wome, mwana yiq, 
ng'anya mbareni ngolo, mwa- 
sasi wome, I. e, now for it, 
now for it, men, let the son of 
evei'yhody strike to the heart, 
now is the time. 

Crying, kililo. 

Cultivate, to, ku-lima. 

Cultivator, mlimi. 

Cunning, ulachu. 

Cunnii^ man, mlachu. 

Cup, kihoro. 

Cup, to, ku-lumika. 

Curdle, to [qf milk], ku-irwa. 

Cure, to, ku-boesa ; [to be aired], 
ku-boa ; [to doctor], ku-rigita. 
^Curse, to, ku-kelemela, ku-kele- 
mesa ; [to. bewitch], ku-loga. 

Cushion [a head pad], ngata. 
^ CustoTos, ada. 

Cut, to, ku-pasa, ku-shinja, ku- 
tema ; [to cut ready to culti- 
vate], kU'Chochola ; [to ctU up], 
ku-bara, ku-paia ; [to cut to 
pieces], ku-barabara, ku-paia- 
paia ; [to ctU short], ku-hiDgi- 
lisa, ku-erecha ; [to cut fire- 
wood], ku-shugula. 

D 

Daily, majua 'gose. 
Dam, to, ku-finga meji. 
Damage, to, ku-nakila, ku-haili- 

kisa, ku-nona. 
Damaged, to be, ku-hakilika, 

ku-hailikika, ku-noneka. 
Damn, to, ku-kelemela, ku-kele- 

mesa. 
Damp, to, ku'nyafusa ; — to be, 

ku-nyafua, ku-kalla na meji. 



^Dance, gonda ; [mbega, a dance 

of the old people]. 
Dance, to, ku-vina. 
Danger, asara, buga [lit. 

troiLble], 
Dare, to, ku-ama [?] ; [to try], ku- 

tima ; [to be boldj, ku-funga 

ndigi ; [to be without fear], 

ku-soa oga. 
Darken, to, ku-kambisa, T. V. ; 

ku-kamba, /. V, 
Darkness, kiza. 
Darling, dede. 
Daub, to, ku-vila. 
.J)aughter, mchana. 
Dawn, to, ku ela. 
Day, ijua, ituku ; [to-day], lelo. 
Day by day, ikeslio na ikesho. 
^Day [all the day], ijua di, rase- 

nya di ; [another day], lau ; 

[the early part of the day], 

ikesho ; [mid-day], mseuya 

'gati. 
J^Daylight, msenya. 
Dazzle, to, ku-ug'ala, /. F. ; ku- 

Dg'aza, T. V. 
Dead, to be, ku-fwa. 
Deaf, to be, ku-fwa masikilo. 
Deaf man, mnduku [?]. 
Deal, to [to give out], ku-sara. 
Dear, dede [lit. my dear]. 
Dear, to be [expensivG], ku- 

kula. 
Deaih, ku-fwa. 
Debt, deni, sili. 
Debt, to get into another's, ku- 

lazana. 
Debtor, mdeni, msili. 
Decay, to, ku-olesha, T. V. ; ku- 

ola, /. V, 
Decease, to, ku-saga. 
Deceit, ukali, ndimi. 
Deceive, to, ku-kala, ku-emba. 
Deceiver, mndimi, mkali, mwe- 

mbi. 
Decide, to, ku-pasa. 



90 



VOCABULARY. 



Declare, to, ku-gora, ku-gamba. 

Decoy y to, ku-emba. 

Decrease, to, ku-gotua, ku-uya, 

nyuma ; ku-punguza, T. V. ; 

kupunguka, /. V. 
Deep, to be, ku-mallka. 
Deepen, to, ku-malisa, ku-po- 

tosa. 
'•^Defeat, to, ku-sima. 
^efend, to, ku-linda. 
Defraud, to, ku-kenga, ku-kopa. 
Defy, to, ku-ama [?]. 
Delay, to, ku-mukisa, T, V, ; ku- 

muka, /. V. 
Deliver to, ku-kiza, ku-okola, 

ku-vuvula, ku-funya. 
Deliverance, ukizi, uokolL 
Deliwired, to be, ku-kila, ku- 

okoka. 
Deliverer, mkizi, mwokoli, mvu- 

vuli. 
Demand, to, ku-kota kwa ma- 

chu. 
Deny, to, ku-kana ; [to refiise'], 

ku-ima, ku-lega. 
Depart, to, ku-genda, ku-gala, 

ku-fuma. 
Depend, to, ku-lolila ; ku-tsini- 

la [la. to lean upon]. 
Deprive, to, ku-soka, ku-usa. 
Deride, to, ku-sekela, ku-zuha. 
Desceiid, to, ku-selela, ku-jika ; 

— to cauae to, seleza, ku-jisa. 
Desert, to, ku-siga, ku-kimbila, 

ku-duduga. 
Deserve, to, ku-fweui, macha ; 

[macha wakwito, you otigJU to 

be beaten]. 
Desire, beha. 
Desire, to, ku-sbaia, ka-hada, 

ku-kalla na tamaa. 
Desires, mahadi. 
Despair, to, ku-sila ngolo [lit. 

theheart is done] ; ku-koja [lit. 

to be tired] ; ku-vuiija tamaa 

[lit. to break the desire]. 



Despise, to, ku-menya. 
Destroy, to, ku-nona ku-haitisa, 

ku-hakila. 
Destroyed, to be, ku-noneka, ku- 

haita, ku-hakilika, ku-haili- 

kika. 
Detain, to, ku-hasisa, ku mii- 

kisa. 
Devil, sbetani. 
Devise, to, ku-dea ujama. 
Dew, manena. 

Diarrhoia, to have, ku-fwaha. 
Die, to, ku-fwa, ku-saga. 
Differ, to [to quarrel], kii-rasha- 

na, ku-omana. 
Different, to be, ku-kalla -zima. 
Diffumlt, to be, ku-kula ; [to be 

heavy], ku-gwaia. 
Dig, to, ku-kota. 
Dilute, to, ku-mnganya, 
Diminish, to, ku-gotua, /. V. 

ku-uya nyunia ; ku-punguza, 

T. V. ; ku-punguka, /, V, 
Direct, to, ku-lagiza. 
Dirt, ikwi. 
Dirty man, mlui. 
Dirty, to be, ku-lua. 
Disciple, mwirimi. 
Discard, to sow, ku-kumba she- 
she. 
Discover, to, ku-vumbula. 
Disease, ukongo. 
DisemJbowel, to, ku-tumbula. 
Disgrace, haya. 
Disgrace, to, ku-fusha waya. 
Ditgust, to, ku-asila. 
Dish, kihoro. 

Dismiss, to, ku-funya, ku-giisa. 
Dispute, to, ku-kanya. 
Distinguish, to, ku-tambula. 
Distribute, to, ku-sara. 
Disturb, to, ku-unula. 
Disturbance, kondo. 
Ditch, muvo ; [a water -runn>el], 

mkulila. 
Divide, to, ku-sara. 



VOCABULARY. 



91 



Divine, to, ku-lagola, ka-kwita 

mbui-uga. 
Do, to, ku-dea ; [to be of use], 

ku-fweni ; [to be doable], ku- 

deika ; [it worCt do], ii mbat 
^Doctor, iDganga. 
Doctor, to, ku-rigita. 
^Doctrine, core. 
Dog, chucnu. 
Done, to be [to be finished], ku- 

doa, ku-sila ; to be cooked], 

ku-irwa. 
Donkey, rachunga. 
^^Door, mjango ; [kishi, a door 

tnade of fibrous wood]. 
Door-way, ilaiiga, mterengo. 
Dot, katouya. 
Double, to, ku-kunja. 
Doubled, to be, ku-kunjika. 
Doubt, to, ku-lega [lit. to refuse]. 
Dove, iringo lya kishalai. 
Down, niafun. 
Down, to go, kn-selela, ku-jika ; 

— ptU, to, kii-ika msangeni ; 

— put, to [to lea/oe alone], ku- 
sigilila; — look, to, ku-lola 
ku-selela. 

Down, to throw [when vA'estling], 
ka-buka. 

Downwards, isi, msangeni. 

Dra^, to, kukurugusa. 

Dragon-fly, kibambarisho (?). 

Draw,to,i.yxn\& ; — water, to, ku- 
tekameji ; — aline,to,\i\i'\sox9., 
ku-dea mhero, ku-dea mcho- 
ri ; — out, to, ku-ku^a ; — 
breaih, to, ku-kula mruki ; — 
together, to, ku-kwoganya ; — 
near, to, ku-suguta avuL 

Dread, to, ku-koga. 

Dream, to, ku-lotesa. 

Dress, mavalo. A woman's dre^s 
consists of a short petticoat 
called iiinda. This does not 
meet round the body ; but the 
front part is supplcmeTUed 



by a small apron called c^ 
mshuru. Another large cloth 
is throKm over the shoulders 
to keep out the cold. A mxm's 
dress consists of a short loin- 
cloth, with a- larger one over 
the shoulders : sometimes it is a 
colour^ one. 

Dress, to, ku-rwara, ku-msa. 

Drill, lugumba, a piece of point- 
ed iron used for piercing 
holes. 

Drink, to, ku-nwa. 

Drink, [a native beer made from 
sugar-cane or homy], njovi 

Drinks. There are several kinds 
of wild acid fruits which the 
natives crush and put into 
their caZdbashes when starting 
on a journey. 

Drive away, to, ku-gusa ; — 
cUoug, to [as cattle], ku-shu- 
nga. 

Drop, katonya. 

Drop, to, ku-tonya, I. V. ; ku- 
tonyesa, T.V. ; [to let fall] 
ku-potosa, T. V, ; ku-potoka, 
/. r. ; ku-budula, T. F.; ku 
bu-duka, I. F, ; [to fall 
down], ku-gwa ; [to cause tb 
fall do^on], ku-gwisha. 

Dropsy, ukongo 'gwa kuvimba. 

Drown, to, kufwa mejini. 

Drowsiness, harlng'a. 

"Drum, ngoma. 

Druvi, to, ku-kwita ngoma. 

Drunk,' to be, ku-narua. 

Drunkard, mnarui. 

Dry, to, ku-omesa, T. F.; ku- 
oma, /. F.; [as grass], ku- 
nyaza, T. F. ; ku-nyala, /. F. ; 
[to become dry after rain], ku- 
furaka, /. F. ; ku-furusa, T. F. 
ku-pata ; [to put out to dry], 
ku'anika ; [to dry up from 
toaiU of Tain.\^ kj3L.-cliHkss.. 



92 



VOCABULARY. 



Duviby to be^ ku-lema ku-gora 
[lit. to be unable to speak], 

Dtiiif tOy ku-leila. 

Ihingy iiiavi. 

Dustj tOy ku-angula. 
00^Dwelly tOy ku-kaila. 
^ DwelHngy makallo. 

Dwiihdley tOy ku-gotua. 

Dyey mngi. 

Dyty tOy ku-vila rangi. 

DyscrUeryy ku-fwaha bigati. 

Each man, killa mundu. 

Eaghy saiigangoju. 

Ear, kisikilo. 

Ear of coni, suke. 

Ear-dropy kipuli. 

Ear -ring y tele. 

Ear-waXy uiaula. 

Early [in the ')iioming]yikeaho ; 

[i7i point of time]y msenya. 
Earnest, fulo. 
Earthy msanga. 

Earth [the world\y isanga lyose. 
Ease, to [to soothe], ku-tsarusa ; 
[to be at ease]y ku-tsarua ; — 
oneself y tOy ku-nya. 
Easily, bule. 

Easy, to be, ku-ongua [lit, to be 

light] ; [to nwJce ea8y]y ku- 

onguisa. 

^ East, andu ijua lyifuma [lU, 

the pla/x where the sun rises], 

Eai, to, ku-lya ; [to eal flour], 

ku-hafwa. 
Eatable, to be, ki|-lyika. 
Eat enough, to, ku-guta. 
Eaves, kishushu. 
Ebony, mwiugo. ^ 

Edging, the red line along the 
edge of cloth is called mchili- 
liDga. 
Effecty to have, ku-kola. 
Effort, to inake an, ku-tima. 



*Eight, nane. 

^Eighteen, ikumi na nane. 

^Eighth, kanane. 

^Eighty, mirongo minane. 

Either, yose. 

Elandy dom. 

Elbow, hunguhungu. 
^Elder, mg^osi. 

Elect, to, KU-sagula. 

Elcphanty njovu. 
.'Elev&Hy ikumi na moju. 
. 'Eleventh, ikumi na kamoju. 

ElsCy ango, ima. 

Elsewhere, andu kuzima. 

Embarra.'is, to, ku-taga akili, 
ku-laho ni akili. 

EmbracCy tOy ku*sura. 

Embroil, to, ku-kumba sheshe. 

Employy to [to send dbout]y ku- 
tuma ; [to make use of]y ku- 
tuniila ; [to be made use of\y 
ku-tumika ; [to give work to], 
ku-ingiza kazini ; [to employ 
a number of people to do a 
certain work], ku-kumba ki- 
kola, ku-kumba ngule. 

Employnienty kazi. 

Emptyy to, ku-kunula ; [to pour 
out as water], Ku-tila, T, V, \ 
ku-tika, /. V, 

Empty, kituhu. 

Enable, to, ku-dimisa. 

Encamp, to, ku-tula [lit, to 2nit 
down, ku-lala]. 

EneampmerUy chengo. 
^ndrcU, to [to fence in], ku- 

hilila. 
{Enclose, to, ku-hilila, ku-dea 
isanzu. 

Enclosure, nyua; [for cattle], bo- 
ro ; [for goats], urano. 

Encourage, to, ku-funga ndigi, 
ku-kumba ngolo. 

End, to, ku-malila, T. V,; ku- 
duisa, I. V. ', ku-dua, /. V, ; ku- 
sila, /. V, 



VOCABULARY. 



93 



Eiid, andu kudua [lit, where it 
endn] ; of a thing, [as of a 



rope], mutu, mbale ; [after', ^Espousef to [to jnake love\ ku- 



wards], ko nyuma. 
^Endure, to, ku-rumagia. 
^7iemy, maiza. 

Engage, to [to agree], ku-sikila- 
na, ku-patana. 

Engaged with, to he, ku-kalla ua 
shuhnli. 

Enigma, wada na wada. The 
enigmatistsaya, Wada ; the one 
who guesses, answers, Na wada. 
Enig, Nyumba yangu siiwe- 
si mjahgo % If it cannot he 
guessed. Enig. says, Ni-hawe 
muzi. The an'twer is, igi, an 

egg- 
Enjoy, to, ku-bwelo, ku^ona 

kwaJoli. 
Enlarge, to, ku-juzila. 
^Enmity, kondo. 
£nou§^, to be, ku-kata ; — have, 

to, ku-guta ; [to be tired], ku- 

kqja. 
f Enslwce, to, ku-dea msunyi, ku- 

uja msunyi. 
Entam,gle, to, ku-kumba matata. 
Enter, to, ku-ingila. 
Entice, to, ku-emba [lit, to de- 
ceive]. 
Entice, to, ku-ruta kwa ula- 

chu. 
Entirely, yose putu, kamare. 
Entrails, utumbo. 
'l7Ura7ice, ilanga, mjango. 
Entreat, to, ku-lalama, ku-voia. 
Envy, iziso. 
Equal, karakara. 
Equals to he, ku-katana. 
Equalize, to, ku-katanisha. 
Ere, hambiri. 
Erect, t-o, ku-ika kimusi. 
En*, to, ku-kosa ; [to miss], ku- 

gosha. 
Escape, to, ku-kila, ku-okoka ; 



[to nin away], ku-kimbila, 
ku-dudus:a. 



kumba ulanga. 

Eternal, kale na kale ; [there in 
no end], sikwesi ku-dua. 

Euphorbia, a kind of, kizori. 

European, mzungu. 

Eoaporate, to, ku-omesa, T. V. ; 
ku-oma, /. V. 

Even, karakara. 

Even, if, hatta. 

Even me, namosi. 

Evening, hafuka. 

Evening [just before the sun 
sets], lumisimis. 

Ever, majua 'gose, matuku *gose, 
kale na kale. 

Every, -ose, killa. 

Everywhere, andu kose. 

Evil, ulagelage. 

Exactly, kai-akara go. 

EjmU, to ku-kasa, ku-unula. 

Exceed, to, ku-isa, ku-cliuinba. 

Exceedingly, muno, na ndigi. 
Ku-manya [to kTiow], and Ku- 
oma [to dry], are also icsed. 
Wakamkwita wakamanya,^^^?/ 
beat him exceedingly. Waka- 
Iwana na miti ikaoma, they 
fought exceedingly. 

Except, ela. 

Exchange, to, ku-inda. 

Excrement,ma,Yi ; [of cattle], saru. 

Excrete, to, ku-nya. 

Exercise, to, ku-ilisa. 

Exhatist, to, ku-kojesa. 

Exhausted, to be, ku-koja. 

Exile, to, ku-gusa. 

Expand to [to open out], ku- 
kunjula, T. V. ; ku-kuujuka, 
1. V. ; ku-fundula, T. V. ; ku- 
fiinduka, /. V. ; [to increase], 
ku-juzila. 

Expect, to, ku-lolila. 

Expeivd, to, ku-funya. 



94 



VOCABULARY. 



Experiefucey to, ku-ODft. 
Explain^ to^ ku-taiubula, 
Explode^ to, ku-bafuka, ku-ba 

rika. 
Ejcplore^ tOj ku-zigana. 
Ei^)osej tOf ku-onya. 



Expowndf to [to rkake a speech\ , ^Family \clan\ kiclmku, lukolo 



ku-chila. 
Extendy to, ku-golola, T» V. ; ku- 

goloka, I.V,\ ku-fisa, T,V,\ 

ku-fika, /. F. 
Ejctei'mitiate, to [to pull up], 

ku-kula ; [to put o^U], ku-zi- 

misa. 
Extinguished, to be, ku-zimika. 
Eviol, to, ku-lika, ku-kasa. 
Extra, mbale. 
Extravagant, to be, ku-lagaza 

vindu bule. 
Eye, iziso ; one-eyed, chongo. 
Eyeball, muiidu wa iziso. 
Eyebrow, kikunya. 
Eyelash, ngoi. 



F 



Fable, lugano. 
Face, ushu. 



Fade, to [to wUher], 'kU'TiyaLze^,"' Fatherless, mkiwa. 



T. V. ; ku-nyala, /. V. ; [to be- 
come ^A-zwJjku-darumisa, T, V, ; 
ku-danima, /. V, 

Fail, to [n^t to have], ku-soa ; 
[to be without], ku-soeka; [to 
miss], ku-kosa. 

Faint, to, ku-zima roho. 
^Fair [white], -muyangi. 

Faith, iduinusi. 

Fall, to, ku-gwa ; [as rain], ku- 
nya ; [as leaves], ku-aoduka ; 
— into, ^ku-buduka,ku-poto- 
ka. 

Fall in, to [the sides of a pit or 
hole], ku-gemnka. 

Fall in, to cause to, ku-gemula. 
^^//, /0 cazise to, ku-gwisha ; 

fas rain], ku-nyesha ; — into, 



to, ku-budula, ku-potosa, ku- 

po-tola. 
False, ndimi. 
Falter, to, ka-chagia. 
Fame, nguma, sare. 
Familiar, to be, ku-ilisa. 



Famine, njala, mcliangu. 

Fan, to, ka-pepea, 

Far, ku-lele, sa ndigi. 

Fast, to, ku-fanga ; to break 

one's fast, ku-fimgula^ ku-pa- 

tsa. 
Fasten^ to, ku-fuDga, ku-maiigi- 

sa. 
Fat, adj., -rifii, ndifu,!^^ nouns 

of the third class. 
Fat, maraha, mavuta. 
Fat, to be, lai-h&jidar; [of ani- 
mals], ku-halasua. 
father, aba, my father ; tatio, 

thy father; tatie, his father ; 

aba wetu, or tatietu, o\ir 

father ; tatienu, yov,r father ; 

tatiyao, their father. 
J^ Father-in-law, the husband calls 

his wife's father mgosi wangu. 



Fatten, to, ku-bandisa. 
Fault, ikosa. 

Favourite, .mshaiii, mshailo. 
fiFear, oga. 
Fear, to, ku-koga. 
Feather, loa ; the longest feather 

of a wing, mvako. 
Feather arrows, to, ku-papika. 
Feeble, -nyongi. 
Feed, to [to tend cattle], ku-lisa ; 

[to bring up], ku-lela. 
Feeder, mlisa. 
Feeding, the work of, ulisa. 
Feel, to [to perceive], ku-oiia ; 

[to tou4:h], ku-wata. 
Female, -ke. 
Fence, isaiizu. 
Felice in, to, kvv\\\\\\ai. 



VOCABULARY. 



95 



Fermcnty to^ ku-irwa. 

Ferry y kiambuko. 

Ferry over, to, ka-ambusa. 

Fetch, tOy ku-leta, kn-konda, ku- 
eDda. 

Fever, msuko. 

Few, -chache. 

Fiddle, mbewewe. 
^ Field, mbua. 

Fierce, to be, ku-bia. 

Fierce man, a, mvara. 

Fierceness, ku-bia, ubia, uvara. 
^Fifteen, ikunii na sano. 
^Fifth, kasano. . 
^ Fifty, mirongo misano. 
* Fight, kondo. 

Fight, to, ku-lwana ; — to ccuuse 
to, ku-lwanisha. 

File, tupa. 

FUl, to, ku-juza ; \to he full], 
ku-jula ; [to fill in a hole\, 
ku-kinili!a ; \to be nearly fuU\, 
ku-kalla goti ; \to fill with 
food], ku-gutisha ; [to have 
had^nmcgh], ku-guta. 

Find, to, ku-ona, ku-pata, ku- 
vumbula, ku-doka ; [to be 
found], ku-oneka ; [to be find- 
able], ku-onekeka ; [to find 
oiU], ku-pola, ku-manya. 

Fine, -loli. 

Fins, to, ku-lya. 

Finger, chala. 

Finger-nails, Iwala. 

Finish, to, ku-malila, T. V. ; 

' ku-duisa, T. V, ; ku-dua, /. V. ; 
ka-sila, /. V, 

Fire, moto. 

Fire, to [to set on fire], ku-ku- 
mba moto ; [to light afire], kur 
koza moto, ku-washa moto ; 
[to btcm], ku-isha, T. F, ; ku- 
ia, 7. v.; [to fire a gun], ku- 
kwita bunduki. 
mm Fire-place, the three stones which 
support the pan, mafiga. 



Fire-fiy, kivunyu [?]. 

Fire-wood, nguni. 

Firm, to be, ka-mapga ; — make, 

to, ku-mangisa. 
, mFirst, hambiri ; [in point of 

time], jako, jandi, jakundi ; 

miika jako, wait first ; lima 

jakundi, hoe first. 
First, to go, ku-kaia, kii-kaiai. 
Fish, nguluma, makumba. 
Fish, to, ku-vula, ku-wata. 
Fist, ngonde. 
Fit, to, ku-kata, ku-fweni. 
Five, sano. 
Fix, to, ku-mangisa, ku-funga ; 

[to fix one's eyjs upon], ku- 

kula meso. 
Fix, to be in a, ku-fungo. 
Flame, lumuli. 
Flams, to, ku-waka. 
Flap, to, ku-pepea. 
Flash of lightning, king' alang'- 

ala. 
Flat, the flaJt side of anything, 

kibalo ; [aflaipie.e of ground], 

kirindi. 
Flay, to, ku-shinja. 
Flea, sawa. 
Flee, to, ku-kimbila. 
Flesh, uyama. 

Fling, to, ku-kumba, ku-taga. 
^FlocJc, nffundi. 
Flood, ukanga 'gwa meji. 
Flour, unga. 
Flower, kilua. 
Floioer, to, ku-funya vilua, ku- 

usa. 
Flute, nguli. 
Fly, mbugombugo. 
Fly, to, ku-buruka ; — to cause to, 

icu-bunisa. 
Foam, ifulo ; [from the mouth], 

julali. 
Fog, tlyara. 



96 



VOCABULARY. 



Follow, to, ku-irlma. 

Folly, upambafu. 

Food, chakulj'a, kilya, kandu ; 
[grain], viro. 
^^ Foods, kimanga, cooked beans; 
rnswara, porridge ; kinolo, 
bread from Ifidian com ; ki- 
naburi, bread from Kaffir 
com; iole, that which is left 
over ; itongi, a morsel ; iiji, 
thin gniel ; ndvLS,, food for a 
sick person. 

Fool, mziniu. 

Foolishness, upambafu. 

Foot, kigulu ; [sole of the foot], 
Iwaio. 

Footprints [of a man], kitende ; 
[(yf animals], Iwaio. 

Footstep, isege. 

For, prep, kwa ; conj. kwani ',for 
is often expressed by the use of 
tJie applied form of the verb. 

Forbid, to, ku-kanya ; [to be un- 
lawful], ku-rigido ; tanarigi- 
da, we forbid. 

Force, kwa ndigi, kwa nguvu. 

Forceps, ngula. 

Ford, kiambuko, andu kuam- 
buka. 

Ford, to, ku-ambuka. 
^^Foref other, aba wa kale. 

Forehead, gambili. 

Foreign, -geni. 
^Foreigner, mgeni. 
1^ Forest on the top of Hie mountahiy 
msitu. 

Forge, to, ku-shana. 

Forget, to, ku-laho, ku-liwa. 

Forgive, to, ku-siga [lit. to leate 
alo^ie]. 

Forsake, to, ku-siga, ku-tagana. 

Fortify, to, ku-liilila. 

FoHunate, to be, ku-dea Mlungu 
waloli. 
^Forty, mirongo mine. 
^rimrd, bamhiri. 



Foster, to, ku-lela. 

Fmir, iue. 

Fowl, ngiiku. 

Fox, tuniga, [a kind of wild 

dog]. 
Free, to [to loose], ku-fungula ; 

[to let go], ku-siga. 
Freewill, ku-shaia -en. 
Freqtoently, mujua'gose. 
Fresh, -ishi. 
'Frietui, mgeni. 
Fright, oga. 

Frighten, to, ku-kumba oga. 
Frightefned, to be, ku-koga, ku- 

oga. 
Fringe, marengere. 
Frog, chula. 
From, kele ; [since], ku-fuma 

[lit. to come otU] ; n^je na ilya, 

fro7}i the tvme I came until 

this. 
Frmit, hambiri. 
Froth, ifulo ; [from the motUh], 

julali. 
Fruit, ishinga. There is really tw 

woi^d for fruit, all fruit is 

called after the name of its 

tree : mrema mvula, [the tree] ; 

irema mvula, -[z^s/nii^] ; mla- 

mba, [the tree] ; kilamba, [the 

fruit]. 
Fry, to, ku-kalanga. 
Frying-pan, kalango. 
Fulfil, to, ku'timiza. 
Fulfilled, to be, ku-timika. 
Full, to be, ku-jula. 
Fullness, ku-jula. * 
Fun, hako. 
Further, hambiri.. 
Future, hambiri. 

G 

Gain, mbambara. 

Gain, to, ku-pata ; [profit, to], 

ku-pata mbambam. 
QaXl, aakala. 



VOCABULAEY. 



97 



Garne [the produce of hurUinglf 

madiwi ; [arMcsemerW], hako. 
Gap, ilanga. 

€^pe, tOf KU-kula myaio. 
^Garden, mgunda, especially of 
sugar-cane ; mbalo, of sweet 
potatoes ; mbua, of grain. 
^^jGarmen^, nguo, mavalo. 
Garret, kale. 
Ga^sh, ngoru, lugiimu. 
Gasp, to, ku-sonda. 
^ Ga^, mjango. 
^ Gateway, mterengo, ilanga. 
CkUher, to, [fruity ku-aha ; 
[Indian com], ka-kwaslia ; 



Imaize], ku-kwita ; — ^cp, ku- , ^Girl, mchana. 



— thin, ku-daruma ; — 
through [squeeze through], ku- 
tsira, /. F, ; ku-tsirisa, T. V. ; 

— through, ku-poka, /. V. ; 
ku-pola, T.V,\ — up, ku-uka, 
/. K. ; ku-nkisa, T. V, ; — upon, 
ku-joka. 

J^host, kijanijanL 
Gift, unosi, mkono, a banana. 
Gimlet, lugumba, a piece of 
pointed iron for making holes. 
Ginger, tangaisi. 
Giraffe, ndiga. 
Girder, m'gamba. 
Girdle, mkoa. 



shoa ; — together, ku-kwogan 
ya, T. V, ; ku-kwogana, L V, 

Gathering, makwogano, ikwL 

Gaze, to, Ku-kula meso. 

GhzelU, mbala. 

Geld, to, ku-t\vila. 
^Generation, kivali. 

Generous, to he, ku-kalla na ishi- 
ma. 

Genitis, mlachu. 

Gently, mbole. 

Get, to, ku-pata, ku-dea ; [to 
recover fro7n an illness], ku- 
boa ; — a little better, ku- 
kalla bahabaha ; — drunk, 
ka-narua ; — dry, ku-oma ; 

— for, ku-patila, ku-deila ; 

— into, ku-ingila ; — another 
into trouble, ku-shekera ; — 
seed into the ground before 
the rain comes, ku-buka ; 

— movZdy, ku-huhua ; — ovi, 
ku-fama, /. V, ; ku-funya, 
T. V, ; — oiU of the way, 
ingila niite! [lit. let tne 
pass /] ; ima ! [lit. get out of the 
way /] ; — otit of one's sight, ku- 
genda noko ; — palm win^e, 
ku-geraa ; — ripe, ku-irwa ; 

— [thi7i, waiefy], ku-salatna ; 



Give, to, ku-hawa ; — a present, 
ku-nosa ; — up, ku-funya ; [iff 
help one to food], ku-ega ; [to 
cut off for], ku-chwila ; — &iit, 
[as words], ku-chila ; — back^ 
ku-uja, /. V. ; ku-ujisa, T. V. ; 
ku-galisha, T. V. ; — ratio^is, 
ku-hawa leu ; — room, ku-ingi- 
la ; — to drink, ku-nwesa ; — 
to eat, ku-lisa ; — trouble, ku- 
emeka, ku-siiimisa ; — way 
under otic, ku-fodeka ; — light, 
ku-langaza. 

Giver, mnosi, mbawi, mchwili. 

Glad, to be, ku-bwelo. 

Gladness, ubwelo. 

Glan/ie, to, ku-kumba meso. 

Glide, to, ku-sharadia. 

Glisten, to, ku-legesa meso [lit. 
to make the eyes unable to look], 
ku-ng'ala. 

Glorify, to, ku-lika, ku-kasa. 

Glory, ubwaa [lit. greatness]. 

Gnaw, to, ku-kakaba. 

Go, to, ku-genda ; [to return], 
ku-gala, ku-uya ; — after, [to 
follow]^ ku-irima ; — away, 
ku-genda noko ; — yoitr wa/y, 
ku-genda ngila zako ; — baek- 
wardi, kurgenda kinyuraa ; — 

G 



98 



VOCABULARY. 



had, ku-ola ; — before, ku- 
kaiai ; — hy, ku-ita ; — down, 
ku-selela, ku-jika ; [to slip 
doum quickly], ku-doromo- 
ka : — crooked, ku-gomeka ; 



— forward, ku-sugata ; — ^ f Grave, kiua. 



into, ku-ingila ; — marketing, 
ku-zosora ; — off \to spring], 
ku-duhuruka ; — out, ku-fii- 
ina ; — oiU [of fire], ku-zimi- 
ka ; — over^ ku-ambuka ; — 



ku-mara ; — up, ku-joka, ku 
kwela. 
/.Goat, mbuzi ; [a he-goat], jigau ; 
[a castrated goat], sitima. 

Goat's beard, sombe. 

God, MluD^. 

Gold, thahabu. 

Good, -loli. 

Goodness, uloli, mbazi [?]. 

Goods, mail. 

Gospel, uvoro 'gwaloli [lit good 
news] ; ilago lyaloli [lit. good 
news]. 

Gotird, kishori [see pumj)kin]. 

Govern, to [to hvld], ku-hasisa ; 
to keep, ku-fuga. 

Grace, mbazi, uloli. 

Gradually, mbole. 

Grain, viro. 

Grand, -loli. 
^Mxrandchild, a grandson calls 
his grandfather, wawa, his 
grandmotlier, ake ; a grand- 
daughter calls her grand- 
father, ake, h/:r grandmother, 
wawa ; a grandfather calls hiA 
grandson, wawa, his grana- 
daughter, ake ; a grand- 



Grass, nyasi ; [yoicng grass], 

mgina. 
Grasshopper, panzi. 
Gratis, banana, bule. 
Gratitude, kirani. 



Gravel, sangalawe. 

Grease, mavuta ; [dirt], ikwi. 

Great, -bwaa. 

Greatness, ubwaa. 

Greed, iziso. 



round, ku-mara ; — running, .fOreen, rangi ya nyasi. 
ku-genda na isege ; — to meet, ^Green ring beads, mburinaro za 



makumbo. 

Greet, to, ku-rogoa, ku-lamuso. 

Grey hair, ivu. 

Grief, vilambo, buga. 

Grieve, to, ku-asila. 

Grieved, to be, ku-asilo. 

Grin, to, ku-seka. 

Grind, to, ku-sha. 

Grit, sangalawe. 
^Ground, isanga. 

Grow, to, Ifti-zugua ; [to spi'ovt\ 
ku-palala ; [to coine up out of 
the ground], ku-fuma ; — fat, 
ku-banda ; — thi^i, ku-daru- 
ma ; [to be full-grovm], ku- 
kula. 

Gruel, uji, mswara 'gwa meji ; 
— for a sick person, mlua. 

Grumble, to, ku-guna. 

Guard, to, ku-linda. 

Guardian, mlindiri. 

Guess, to, ku-saka. 

Guide, kilongozi. 

Guide, to, ku-onya ngila [lit. to 
show the way] ; ku-gensa [lit. to 
take], ku-longoza. 

ChiiU, ikosa, kaung'a. 

Guinea-fowl, ngaiiga. 



mother calls her grandson, , ^Gully, mkarangu. 



ake, her gi^anddau^hter, wa- 
wa. 

Grant, to, ku-hawa. 

Grasp, to, ku-wata, ku-hasisa. 



Gum, mongolo. 
Gum [of the teeth], kiui [?]. 
Gu)i, bunduki ; [canno^i], mzi- 
nga. 



VOCABULARY. 



99 



Crun^capy fataki. 

G-itn-locky mtambo'gwa bundu- 

ki. 
Grunpowder, baruti. 
Gut, utumbo. 
Gutter, muYo. 

H 

Hack, to, ku-toma. 
ffafi, mwinL 
^Hair \pf thd head], sisiri ; 

straight hair is called mfuru- 

ra ; toooUy hair is called su- 

rizi ; [of animals], mafuri ; 

— tvMed into knobs, itiko ; 

[grey hair], ivu. 
^Half, nusu, mbeo. 
Halt, to [to stajid], ku-kalla 

kimnsi ; [to go lame], ku-sho- 

gora. 
Hammer, nyundo. 
Hammer, to, ku-daha, ku-gonga, 

ku-shana. 
Hand, mkono, kikoto. 
Handle, mwini. 
Handle, to, ku-wata. 
Handsome, -loli. 
Hang, to, ku-anika ; [to strangle], 

ku-tswaia. 
Happen, to, ku-doka. 
Happy, to he, ku-bwelo. 
Hard, to he, ku-kula. 
^Hard ground, gahara. 
Hardness, ku-kula. 
Hare, hwaro. 
Harm, to, ku-dea lagelage ; there 

is no harm, sikwesi undu. 
Harteheest, gwali. 
^ Harvest,to, kn-kwsLaha., of Indian 
'■ com ; ku-kwita, of Kaffir corn; 

ku-aha, of heans, peas, etc. 
Harvest, time of, matuku 'ga 

kukwasha, etc. 
Hasty, to he, ku-bia. 
Hat, kofia. 



Haich, to, ku-lalila ; [to break ih^ 

eggs], ku-kongota. 
HatcJtet, isoka. 
Hate, to, ku-meuya ; — to cause 

to, ku-menyesa. 
Hatred, ku-menya. 
Have, to, ku-kalla na, ku-wesi. 
Having, -enyl, -esi. 
Hawk, to, ku-marisa [lit. to carry 

about]. 
He, ie, uyu, uu. 
Head, choDgo, inutu. 
Head-dress, kilemba [lit. tier- 

ban] ; of ostrich feathers, ki tu- 
tu. 
Heal, to, ku-boesa, ku-ambo- 

chola. 
Healed, to be, ku-boa, ku-ambo- 

choka. 
Health {good health), maanii,. 

mzima. 
J^Heap, kitungu ; [of icrcds], 

mbii ; [of firewood], cheta. 

Mfingiri, a heap of stones on the 

plains of Taita, said to have 

been erected by a tribe called 

AVarwana. 
Hear, to, ku-sikila. 
Hearken, to, ku-sikizila. 
Heart, iigolo ; [of banana free 

eaten in time of famine^ ki- 

tau. 
Heat, moto. 
Heaven, mlunguni [lit. to. God, 

or with God]. 
Heavy, to be, ku-gwaia. 
•Hedge, isanzu. 
Hedge, to, ku-hilila. 
Heel, gimbi. 
yHeifer, tago. 
Heights, dumu. 
Help, to, ku-taria, ku-arura ; — 

to food, ku-ega, especially of 

porridge. 
Helper, mwarari. 
Hen, nguku ya wake ; a layin 



100 



VOCABULARY. 



•' hefif nigoma ; a young herif 
tago. 

Hence, aho. 

Her, ie, uyu, uu. 
^ Herd, ngundi ; of wild animals, 

muzi. 
^Herdsman, mlisa, mshungi. 

Here, kun% aha, aenya, aen ; 
seo, he is not here; uaen, he 
is here. 

Hereafter, konyuma. 

Hesitate, to, kii-chagia. 
m Hide, mrongo, ngingo ; for 
sleeping upon, kishelo ; for 
sleeping upon when travelling, 
njaruba ; a piece of hide, ki- 
kundi. 

Hide, to, ku-visa, ku-finikila. 

High, lugulu. 
• Hill, mgondi ; a very small 
mound, kigemo ; a mountain, 
lugongo, kifuravu ; a?i ant- 
hill, nibalyb. ^ 

Him, ie, uyu, uu. 

Hinder, to, ku-ima. 

Hip, figo. 

Hippopotamus, vuo. 

Hiss, to, ku-dea minyiro. 

Hit, to, ku-lasa, ku-kvvita, ku- 
riba, ku-'disa. 

Hobble, to, ku-tiginya, ku-sho- 
gora. 
^^oc, igembe, an iron hoe ; mulo, 
a small stick for digging ; 
mwando, a larger stick ibsed in 
pricking the ground. 
«r Hoe, to, ku-lima ; [to cub dmon 
the grass before hoeing], ku- 
chochola ; [th loosen the ground 
by pricking], ku-tlyatlyaia ; 
[to get out thoroi(>ghly all th(^ 

. weeds], ku-sambula ; [to g^it up^ 
all the potatoes before sowing], 
ku-kaila ; [to scratch the 
^roiind w?ie7i the first weeds 

f^j^ear], ku-bumga. 



Hoeing time, kiKmo. 

Hold, to, ku-wata, ku-hasisa, 
ku-manzira. 

Hole, mrumo, kina, ilanga ; a 
hole where seed is, jina. 

Holy, to be, ku-ela [lit. to be 
clean]. 

JBr<?me,kwangu, my home ; kwako, 
thy home ; kwake, his home ; 
mzetu, our home; mzenu, your 
home ; mzawe, their home. 

Honesty, banana [lU. nothing]. 

Honey, uki ; native Jumey con- 
sists of honey, beeswax, etc. ; 
one part is called kimanga, 
and is said to disagree with 
many. 

Honour, ishlma. 

Hoot, to, ku-oda, ku-zuha. 

Hope, to, ku-lolila [lit, to look 
for] ; ku-kalla na tamaa [lit. to 
long for], 

Horn, mbembe, Iwembe ; kudu 
horn used as a trumpet, gu- 
nda ; smaller horns, nderere. 

Hot, -a moto. 

Hot, to be, ku-ia. 

Hot-tempered, ku-bia. 

Hour, saa. 

House, nyumba. 

Hov^ ? ije ? 

However, masena. 

Howl, to, ku-kema. 

Human, kidam. 

Humble, -nyongi 

Humbug, to, ku-gama. 

Humility, unyongi. 

HuTwp [a cow's hump], ifufu. 

\Hundred, i'gana. 

Hunger, njala. 

Hungry, to be, ku-kalla na 
njala. 

*Hunt, to, ku-diwa. 

Hunter, mdiwi. 

Hurt, to, ku-harisa, ku-luma. 

Husband, m\\ime. 



VOCABULARY. 



101 



^Huty kianda. 
^HyocTui, fisi. 
Hymn^ lumbo. 



Husks, maganda, mafundo. Jj^hiclosure, nyua ; for goats, uia- 

no ; for cattle, boro. 
Increase, to, ku-juzila. 
Indebted to, to he, ku-leilo, na- 

lyili kindu chake, / hctve 
J eaien something of his. 

Indeed, fulo, fulokwen. 
India-ryibher, mpira. 
Indian com, ibemba [see corn]. 
Infirm, -nyongi. 
Infirmity, unyongi. 
Inform, to, ku-lya malago, ku- 

hawa uvoro. 
Information, uvoro, ilago. 
Ingenio%bs, -lachu, 
Ingenuity, uya, ulacbu. 
Inherit, to, ku-irima ufwa. 
Inheritance, ufwa. 
Injure, to, ku-harisa. 
Innocent, -a banana. 
Inquire, to, ku-kota. 
In^side, amwen, case in -iii. 

folliywed by kwa-. 
Inspect, to, ku-zigana. 
Instead of, andu kwa-. 
Instruction, mafundisho. 
Intellect, akili. 
Inteniionally, kasidi, 'dali. 
Intercede for, to, ku-lombela. 
Intercessor, mlombi, mshiki. 
Intercept, to, ku-kasha, to go 

between two parties to prevent 

them from fyhting. 
Interfere, to, ku-lngila. 
Intestines, utumbo. 
Into, kele, amwen, case in 

-ni, followed by pronouns in 

kw-. 
Intoxicate, to, ku-narusa. 
Invite, to, ku-ita. 
Iron, kizia. 

Irrigate, to, ku-finga meji. 
Irritate, to, ku-koronga, ku- 

emeka, ku-gama. 



I, imi. 

Idiot, mzimu. 

Idle, -mgadi. 

Idle, to be, ku-gada. 

Idleness, ugadi. 

If, ngera, sala, kamba, nda, 

-ka-, inserted in the verb [see 
. conditumal tense]. 
Ignorance, upambafa. 
Ill, -kongo. 
Ill, to be, ku-kalla mkongo ; [to 

be very ill], ku-lwala. 
Illness, ukongo. 
linage, 8ura. 
Imaginations, magelelo. 
Imagine, to, ku-gelela, ku-iri- 

kanya. 
Imitate, to, ku-sunga. 
Immature, -koo. 
Immerge, to, ku-busa, ku-fuma. 
Immerse, to, ku-ingiza. 
Implore, to, ku-lalama. 
Impossible, to be, ku-lega ku- 

deika ; it is impossible, siku- 

deika. 
Imprison, to, ku-fiinga, ku-ku- 

mba kifungoDL 
Improve, to, ku-boesa. 
In, kele, case in -ni, followed 

by pronouns in kw-, as : ngo- 

loni kwangu ; in front, kwa 

hambiri ; in order that [see 

subjunctive mood] ; in place of, 

andu kwa- ; in the middle, 

'gati ; in the middle of, 'gati 

na 'gati ; in the morning, na 

ikesho. 
Inclose, to [to fence in], ku-hi- 1 Is \sce "to be "V 



lila.. 



"l 



Issue, to, YsL-lM\sa.« 



102 



VOCABULARY. 



Jty ichi, icho [see demonstrative 
pronouns]. 

Itchy uwele. 

Itch, to, ku-hatso [lit. to be 
bitten]. 

Ivory, njovu, Iwembe Iwa njo- 
vu. A male tusk about two 
hands is called kibori ; about 
three and a half hands, tofwa ; 
aboiU four hands, tofwa sha- 
gangi; five or six hands, 
isange. 



Jackal, gweha. 

Jacket, kizibao. 

Jar [waier-jar], saiigu. . 

Jaw, munzu. 

Jealoics, to be, ku-kalla na iziso 

[lit. to envy]. 
Join, to, ku-nasa, ku-luiiga, ku- 

bisa. 
Joint [of the bones], nganju ; [of 

two branches], mbaragasha. 
Joke, maseko. 
Journey, cliaro. 
Journey, to, ku-tamba. 
Joy, to, ku-bwelo. 
^Jildge, mtani. 
Judge, to, ku-taganya, ku- 

amula. 
Juice, of SMgar-cane, marami ; of 

trees, mazia, bigati ; of the 

banana tree, kitofe. 
Jump, to, ku-chumba. 
Jiistice, hache, karakara. 

K 

Knep, to [to put aioay], ku-ika ; 
[to gu>ar(i], kM'Vinda. ; [to hold], 
ku-wata, ku-hasisa, ku-ma- 
nzira ; [to delay], ku-mukisa, 
ku-sindisa ; [to keep awake], 
kii-lala meso ; — animals, kii- 

ATe^, ufungnlo. 



Kick, to, ku-kwita ilapa, ku-lasa 

isege. 
Kid, ndagina. 
Kidney, tigo. 
Kill, to, ku-ulaga ; — for food, 

ku-shinja ; — in battle, ku-ula- 
ga mboi. 
Kindle, to, afire, ku-wasbamo- 

to, ku-koza moto, ku-kumba 

moto. 
Kind [of what kind f], muni [?] ; 

[anA)ther kind], -zima. 
Kindness, kirani. 
^Kindred, mbari. 
King, mdu mbwaa, a big man ; 

mzuri, a rich Tnan. 
Kingdom, uzuri, ubwaa. 
Kiss, msusugo. 
Kiss, fe, ku-susuga. 
\»Kitchen, ku-rugoni 
Knee, ngokoro. 
Kneel, to, ku-tlyaia ngokoro. 
. •Knife, ndagala ; [a big knife], 

njomo. 
Knock, to, ku-kongota, ka-go- 

nga ; — down, ku-gwisha. 
Knot, of a tree, fundo, iguinifu ; 

in string, kifindiko. 
Know, to, ku-manya, ku-weni ; 

[/ dm!t knvow], noko. 
Kudu, sarabe ; female, igalu. 



Lo/ck, to, ku-soa. 

Lacking, to be, ku-soeka. 

Lake, ndiwa, izia ; a sheet of 

water, ukanga. 
Lamb, mwana wa ng'onzi. 
Lame man, kitiginya. 
Lamely, to go, ku-sbogora, ku- 

nyanyaga. 
Lament, to, ku-lila. 
Lamentation, kililo. 
Lamp, taa. 
Land, isanga. 
Latvdmark, nwiuka. 



VOCABULARY. 



103 



^Language, mateto ; [to use bad 

language^ ku-lagalaga. 
Large, -bwaa. 
Lash [eyelash'], ngoi. 
Lastf nyuma. 
iMst nighty ihwaiu. 
Last, to, ku-kalla luma. 
Last, to be, ku-malila nyuma. 
LeUe, to be, ku-elesa, ku-muka- 

muka [lit. to delay], 
Laitgh, to, ku-seka ; — to cause 

to, ku-sekesa. 
''Law, mlomo [lit, a word] ; [to be 

unlawful], ku-rigido. 
Lay, to, ku-ika ; — down, ku-tu- 

ngurisa ; — eggs, ku-vala ma- 
gi ; — hold, ku-wata. 
Lazy, to be, ku-gada. 
Lecid, iambu. 
Lead, to, ku-longoza, ku-kaiai, 

ku-dongoza ; — astray, ku-la- 

gaza. 
^ Leader, mlongozi, mdongozi, 

mkaiai. 
Leaf, nyasi ; the new leaf in the 

centre of the banana tree is 

called mkombolodi. 
LeaJc, to, ku-vuja. 
Lean, to become, ku-danima ; — to 

cause to become, ku-danimisa. 
Lean upon, to, ku-tsinila. 
Leap, to, ku-chumba. 
Learn, to, ku-kufunda, ku-ku- 

mauyisa. 
Leave, to, ku-siga, ku-fuma ; [to 

leave go], ku-sigilila ; — over, 

ku-hangala ; [to be left over], 

ku-hangalika ; [to take leave 

of], ku-laga. 
Leaven, to, ku-irwisha [lit. to 

ripen]. 
Left hand, mkono 'gwa kimo- 

sho ; mkono 'gwa kiwake. 
Leg, kigiilu. 
Lemon, ikapu. 
Lend, to, ku-kopa. 



Length, ulele. 

Lengthen, to, ku-jiizila ulele. 

Leopard, ingwi ; the huntimj 

leopard, uji. 
Leprosy, matana, mwiti. 
Lessen, to, ku-erecha, ku-pungn- 

za, T, V. ; ku-punguka, /. V. 
Let, to [to permit], ku-siga ; 

— cfeif;7i,ku-seleza,ku-jisa ; — 

loose, ku-fungula. 
Letter, baiiia. 
Level, karakara ; — ground, kiri- 

ndi. 
Level, to, ku-gwisha kirindi ; [to 

be equal with], ku-katana ; [to 

make equal], ku-katanisha. 
Liar, mndimi. 
Liberal, to be, ku-kalla na ishi- 

ma. 
Lice, inda. 
Lichen, madaida. 
Lick, to, ku-tsuba. 
Lid, kifindiko, malue. 
Lie, ndimi. 
Lie, to [to utter falsehood], ku- 

gora ndimi ; — across, ku-kalla 

Kizemerumu ; — down,'k.\x-ii2L- 

raga, ku-tungura, ku-lala ; — 

awake,)LVL'\B\Q, meso,ku-lavile ; 

[this verb is past inform, b^U 

present in meaning] — on one's 

back, ku-lala kingazi ; — i7i 

wait for, ku-lalila. 
'Life, uzima. 
/4/i^,^o,ku-uuula ; [to lift a mans 

burden on to his head], ku-tu- 

ka. 
Light, mlangazi, moto ; [a guin 

called mtungu is used as a 

light]. 
Light, to, ku-washa ; — to be, ku- 

ela, ku-langala ; — to be [not 

heavy], ku-angua. 
Light upon, to, ku-gwila. 
Lighten, to [to make clear], ku- 



104 



VOCABULARY. 



fling], ku-ng'ala, ku-kumba 
lufu ; [to make less heavy], £u- 
anguisa. 

Lightning, lufu Iwa mvula. 

Like, sa. 

Like, to, ku-shaia, ku-shaile 
[this verb is past in form, hut 
present in meaning]. 

Like, to be, ku-katana, ku-fwa- 
nana ; [wh>at is it like f] ige- 
nije? 

Liken, to, ku-katanislia, ku- 
fwananisha. 

Likeness, sura, ifwani. 

Lime, takaa, ivu ; fruit, ndimu. 

Limit, rawaka. 

Limit, to, ku-dua mwaka. 

Line, mchori, mhero. 

Linger, to, ku-mukamuka, ku- 
sinda ; — to cavse to, ku-sindisa. 

Lion, shimba. 

Lip, kishiniko. 

Listen, to, ku-sikizila. 

Little, -chache ; [very little], 
-chachere. 

Live, to [to be alive], ku-kalla 
moyo ; [to continue to live], 
ku-tula moyo ; [he is alive], 
yu moyo. 

Lively, to be, ku-karagara. 

Liver, itima. 

Lizard, ichorombo ; [large liz- 
ard], pambo. 

Load, msigo ; — of firewood, yi- 
lo ; — of sugar-cane, ipane. 

Load a gun, to, ku-sindilila. 

Lock, ku-fuli, 

Lock, to, ku-fuDga. 

Locust, nzige. 

Log, mgogo, mrigo. 

Loin-cloth, nguo ya chunu. 

Loins, chunu. 

Lmig, -refu, -lele : with nouns of 
the third class they become 
ndefu and ndele ; — time, 
luma ; [a long vxiy], kulele. 



Long for, to, ku-kalla na tamaai 
ku-melehesa ; [in a bad sense], 
ku-kalla na izlso. 

Longing, beha, tamaa. 

Look, to, ku-lola, ku-zlgana ; 
— after, ku-manya ; — out 
for, ku-lolila ; — for, ku*ha- 
da ; — round [to turn the 
head], ku-eria. 

Looking-glass, kiloli. 

Loose, to, ku-fungula. 

Loose, to be [not tight], ku-kalla 
bolobolo. 

Lose, to, ku-lacaza. 

Lost, to he, ku-lagaia. 

Louse, inda. 

Love, usbaio, mashaio. 

Love, to, ku-shaia, ku-shaile 
[this verb is past inform, hut 
present in meaning] ; [to make 
love], ku-kumba ulanga. 

Lovely, -loli. 

Low, to, ku-doka. 

Lower, to, ku-seleza, ku-jisa, ku- 
tula. 

Lowly, -nyongi. 

Luck [good l%bck], mlungu wa- 
loli ; [bad luck], ndesanya [?]. 

Lull, to, ku-ngolangola. 

Lump, fungu ; [a small helping 
of porridge], itongL 

Lungs, mbafu. 

Ltist, to, ku-kalla na iziso. 

Lust, iziso. 

M 

Machine, mtambo. 

Mad, -zimo. 

Madness, mutu. 

'Ma^, usai. 

Maggot, kivunyu, kuhu. 

Maiden, mchana. 

MairUain, to, ku-hasisa, ku- ma- 

nzira, ku-wata ; [to support], 

ku-lela. 
Maixe, ibemba [aU eom\ 



VOCABULARY. 



105 



Make, to, ku-dea, ku-nmba ; — 
an agreement, ku-dkilana ; — 

^blood-brothers, ku-lya muma ; 
— ffood [to pay], ku-shana ; — 
clodies for, ku-shonela nguo ; 
— fat, ku-bandisa ; — haste, 



uja mkongo ; — love, ku 
kumba uutnga ; — rnetal 
^things, ku-shana ; — pea>ce, 
ka-shaana, ku-dea sere ; — 
plain, ka-tambula ; — pot- 
tery, ku-umba ; '— roo7n for, 
ku-ingila ; — sorry for, kii- 
harisa ngolo ; — to agree, ku- 
patanisba ; — unlawful, ku- 
rigida ; — up a fire, ka-ko- 
ngocha ; — water, ku-kojela ; 
— weU, ku-boesa. 

^McUe, -lume. 

^Man, mdu, mundu ; [a young 
man], mtawana. 

^Marihirid, mdam. 

^Maidy, ulnme. 
Many, -ngL 
Mar, to, £i-nona. 

^Margin, mbalembale. 



Matter [affairs], vilambo, uvo- 
rojshuli ; [whM is the matter ?] 
n'ini ao ? [what is the matter' 
vnth you ?] uo na'ni ; [what 
does it matter f], kwanawe- 
sini. 



ku-dea shwoshwo ; — HI, ku- - '^May, ngera [see Grammar, aux- 



iliary verbs]. 
Me, imi. 
Meal, unga ; [food], cliakulya, 

kilya ; [breakfast], kipatsi ; 

[exefiiiTig meal], kilalilo. 
Mean, to, ku-hada, ku-shaia. 
Meaning, -a kimuni, -a ije. 
Meanness, unyoiigi. 
Means, ngila. 
Jfgaswre, kipimo, kitimo. 
Measure, to, ku-tima ; [to place 

side by side], ku-katanisha. 
Meat, nyama ; — cut up in long 

strips and dried, mdanda. 
Mediate, to, ku-gora [lit. to 

speak] ; ku-lombela [lit, to 

intercede for], 
^Mediator, mgori [lit. a speaker] ; 

mlombi [lit, one who prays] ; 

mshiki [lit. a go-between]. 



Mark, to, ku-dea mcbori, ku- 



dea mbero ; [to draw a line on mMediciTie man, mganga. 



the groumd], ku-bera. 
^Market, chete, 
^Market, to, ku-zogora. 
^Marriage, arasi. 
^ Marry, to, ku-lola, ku-usa ; 
[to put one into a position to 
marry by paying the price of 
the girl, ku-loza ; [to pay the 
price of the girl], ku-boa. 
Marvel, tambo. 
Marvel, to, ku-sbinika. 
Mash, to, ku-onda. 
*" Master [the owner of a thing], 
•mweuyi, tatie. 
Master, to, ku-sima. 
Matches, kibiriti. 



Mark, mbero, mcbori, alama. . ^Medicine, uganga, inwiti ; [black 



medicine], usai. 



Meditate, to, ku-gelela, ku-iri- 

kanya. 
Meekness, ubanana. 
Meet, to, ku-kwogana, ku-ona- 

na ; [to go to meet], ku-mara ; 

[to meet a person when starting 

out on a journey], ku-kwita 

mzana. [This is considered 

bad luck.] 
Melt, to, ku-saga, /. V. ; kusa- 

gisa, T, V, 
Memxyrial, ukumbusbo. 
Mend, to, ku-boesa ; — clothes, 

ku-rokosba. 
Menstruate, to, ku-oga. 
Mention, to, ku-gora. 



*■ 






..f-\ 



106 



VOCABULARY. 



Mercyy isliima, waya. 

Mercy f to show, ku-fwila waya. 

Merry, to he, ku-sekaseka. 

Message, mlomo. 

Messenger, mtmni. 

Mice, lubanya. 

Mid-day, insenya 'gati. 

Middle, 'gati na 'gad. 
' Midnight, 'gati ya kiro, kiro ki- 
bwaa. 

Might [jpower], ku-dima [see 
Grammar, auxiliary verhs\. 

Mighty, ndigi, nguvu. 

Mild, -a mbeo. 

Mildew, to, ku-huhua. 
^MUk, maziwa ; [new milk], 
maziwa malshi ; [curdled 
milk], maziwa 'gairwiro ; [butter 
milk], maziwa 'gasukilo. 
^Milk, to, ku-kama. 

Millet, mwemba, [see corn] ; [a 
small kind of millet], msele. 

Mince, to, ku-pasapasa. 

Mind, to, ku-manya, ku-linda, 
ku-lola ; [/ dmiH mind], siwe- 
8i kazi. 

Minister, mdafwariri. 

Minister, to, ku-dafwarira. 

Mirade, makilimbita, 

Miscarriage, ku-fuma kifu. 

Mischief, sheshe. 

Mischief-maker, mdu wa she- 
she. 

Misery, mashaka. 

Mislead, to, ku-kosesha, ku-em- 
ba. 
' Miss, to, ku-gosha, ku-kosa. 

Missed, td be, ku-ririga, wan'riri- 
ga na ndigi aga matuku, you 
are very much on my thoughts 
these days. 

Mist, tlyara. 

Mistake, ikosa. 

Mistake, to make, ku-kosa. 
Jf/a^, io, ku-mnganytk, 
^ocA;, to, ka-sunga. 



Moderation, karakara. 

Modesty, haya. 

Monkey [the eomm^m monkey], 
mondovu ; [the black-faced 
mo7ikey], nglma ; [the collobtcs 
m^onkey], mbega. 

Month, mwezi. 

J^oon, mwezi ; [the new rnoon], 
mwezi kongo ; [the first ten 
days], ikumi lya hambiri ; 
[the second ten days],ik}imi lya 
'gati ; [the last teti days],ikami 
lya kizimu. 

More, sena. 

More, to add, ku-jnzila. 

Moreover, sena. 

Morning, ikesho ; [early morn- 
ing], makeo. 

Morrow, ike^o. 

Morsel, kakindi, itongi. 

Mortar, kituli. 

Mosquito, rwai. 

pMother, mawe [lit, my mot7i>er] ; 
meo, your mother ; mee, 
his mother; mee yetu, our 
mother ; mee yenu, your 
m/yther ; mee yawe, their 
TTwther ; [step-mother], mama ; 
[mother-in-law], mkekulu. 

Mould, to [to become irwvMy], 
ku-huhua. 

Mound, kigemo. 

Mount, ^0, ku-joka. 

Mountain, lugongo. 

Mourn, to, ku-lila. 

Mourning, kililo. 

Mouse, mbanya. 

Mouth, mlomo. 

Move, to, ku-sugusa, T, V. ; 
ku-suguta, /. V, ; [to shaJce], 
ku-nyavura ; [to change the 
place of dwelling], ku-sama. 

Mpallah, nausL 

Much, -ingL 

Mucus, mafuri. 

Mud, mabo^o. 



VOCABULART. 



107 



MvUUude, makwogano. 

Mwrder, to, ku-nls^ 

Mwrderer^ mulagi. 

Murmur , to, ku-guna. 

Muscle, basi 

Mush/room, choo, too. 

Music, ngoma. 
^Musical instruments, ngoma, 
drum; ganda, a large kudu 
horn; nderero, a snuUl horn 
used in fighting ; Dgnli, a 
small reed whistle ; mbewewe, 
a stringed instrument. 

Must, hatta, ^sutti, shutL 

Mutilate, to, ka-tematema. 

My, -angu. 

Myself, imi mwen. 

N 

Nail [wooden pegs for stretching 
skins on the ground], iambo ; 
{Jinger-nMil\, Iwala. 

Naked, tuu. 

Nakedness, utuu. 

Name, izina. 

Name, to, ku-ita, ku-bawa izi- 
na ; \to give names in a play - 
ftU manner], ku-daria ; [what 
is your name ?], onaitoani ? 

Narroio, -suae, 

Narroumess, ususe. 

Nasty, to be [to be bitter], ku-bia, 
ku-barara. 
^Nation, mbari. 
^Native, mdn wa isanga. 

Navel, mkuvu. 

Near, avul 

Necessaries, vinduvifwen. 

Neck, singo. 

Need, to, ku-sbaia, ku-bada. 

Needs, mabadi. 

Needle, sinzano. 

Neglect, to, kt^siga [lit, to leave] ; 
ku-lega [lit. to refuse]. 
^ Neiglibour, mbetu [lit. ourneigh^ 
Ifour] ; mhenvL, [lit. your neigh- 



bour] ; mbawe [lit. their neigh- 
bour]. 

Neither, batta [lU. no and nor]. 

Nest [birds nest], nyumba ya 
nyonyi. 

Never, batta kale na kale. 

Nevertheless, ela, ela ima. 

New, -isbi ; vnth nouns of the 
third class, mbisbi. 

News, uvoro, ilago. 

Next, -a kaili. 

Nibble, to, ku-kakaba, ka-ba- 
tsa. 

Nice, -lolL 

Nicely, kirani. 

Niche, ugoru. 

^Nicknaine, izina lya sare ; almost 
every man has two names, one 
given to him at his birth, the 
other given to agree with some 
peculiarity of his, thus : — ki- 
lagai, a man who was once 
lost, from ku-lagaia, to be 
lost. 

Nickname, to, ku-daria. 

Nigh, avui. 

Night, kiro ; [aZl night], kii*o 
cbe ; [last night], ibwaiu. 

Nimble, to be, ku-karagai*a. 

^Nine, ikenda. 

^Nineteen, ikumi na kenda. 

Nineteeivth, ikumi na kakenda. 
mNin^y, mirongo kenda. 

Nip, to, ku-tungula. 

Nipple, iwele. 

No, batta, ii, baiya, mbai, niku- 
tuu. This last word is OTily 
used in connection with the 
words andu kungi . . . : — 
andu kungi nasbaia ? nikutuu, 
should I ai all like ? no. 

Nobody [there is nobody], sikwsi 
mdungi. 

Nod, to, ku-tumingila. 

Noise, cbelele ; [of voices], Iwa- 
ka. 



108 



VOCABULARY. 



Noise^ to make^ ku-dea chelele ; 
[to shout], ku-kema ; [to make 
an uproar], ku-oda. 

Nonsense, uduu. 

Noon, msenya 'gati, ijua cho- 
ngoni. 

Noose, shagala. 

Nor, hatta. 

Nose, mbula. 

Nostril, mrumo 'gwa mbula. 

Not, si-, su- and sa-, prefixed to 
verbs. See negative tenses of 
verbs. 

Not yet, ku-kaili. 

Nothing, sikindu ; {/or nothing], 

ya banana ; [there is nothing], 

^ oa. Lukunga Iwauya oa \lit. 

the war -cry has becomenothing], 

i. e. a false alarm. 

Nothing whatever, si kindu chi- 
ngl ; [there is nx)thin^ what- 
ever], sikwesi kindu chingi. 

Nourish, to, ku-lisha. 

Now [directly], ilyen, short for 
ilyli lyen, ndam, ndakvven ; 
[to-day], lelo kwen ; [these 
days], a'ga matuku, aga ma- 
geri ; [tJwse days], *galya ma- 
tuku ; [at this time], ii ngelo ; 
[our days], mandu 'getu. 

Number, to, kusabu ; [how 
many .?] -linga ; with nouns of 
the third class, ndinga. 

Number, to, ku-tala, ku-wata 
sabu. 

Numerous, to be, ku-era. 

Nurse, mlezi. 

Nurse, to, ku-lela, ku-lisha. 





Oc0i, m'guli, abas. 

Oath, to take an, ku-gema, ku- 

nwa m'guli. 
Obey, to, ku-sikila [lit. to hear] ; 

ku-tumikila [lit. to serve] ; ku- 



shaia [lit. to like] ; ku-rama- 
gia [lit. to assent]. 

Object to, to, ku-lega, ku-ima [lit. 
to refuse]. 

Observe, to, ku-lola. 

Obstinacy, nana. 

Obtain, to, ku-pata, ku-dea. 

Occupation, kazi, shuli, undu. 

Occupied, to be, ku-kalla na 
undu. 

Of, -a, unth the variable prefix 
[see Cframmar], 

Offence, ikosa. 

Offend, to, ku-asila, ku-kumba 
hari. 

Offender, mkosi. 

0/er, to, ku-funya [lU. to bring 
out. Koo is said when a thing 
is held out to be received. 

Offering, sadaka. 

OffspriTig, kivali. 

(y'ten, kingi ; [very often], majua 
'gose. 

Oh I [int.], kila, na mbee, mai. 
»Old, -a kale. 

fOld, to becoTne [of a m^n], ku- 
'gosia ; [of a woman], ku-ke- 
kula. 
aOld man, m'gosL 
•Old woman, mkekulu. 
fOTnen, the cry of a certain bird 
in front of travellers is con- 
sidered a bad om,en ; itis called 
ku-kwito n'nyonyi [lit. to be 
struck by a bird]. To meet a 
man wJien starting on a 
journey is a bad omen ; it is 
called ku-kwita mzana. 

Omit, to, ku-siga. 

On, na lugulu, the case in -ni ; 
[on the top of the tahle], meza- 
ni na lugulu ; [on both sides], 
igasi zose mbili ; [on all sides], 
igasi zose ; [on foot], na magu- 
lu, kwamagulu ; [on purpose], 
kwa kasidi, Mali. 



VOCABULARY. 



109 



Chice, kamojori, kamoju ; [at 
once], ilyen ilyi, ndakwen. 

Chie, moju, mosi ; [only one], 
mojori ; [one-eyedjf chongo, 
kifoudo. 

Oneness, jukn. 

Only, tu ; [only this], hung* tu ; 
[cmZy a very little], tutu ; [that 
is all], nao bas ; [alone], weke, 
kingVeri. 

Open, to, l^u-fundula [lit. to 
uncover] ; ku-funda, to he 
UTicovered] ; [to open a door], 
ku-rugura, 7\ V. ; ku-ruguka, 
/. V, ; [to unfasten], ku-fu- 
ngola ; [to open 07ve*s eyes or 
mouth], ku-tambula, T. V. ; 
ku-tambuka, /. V. ; [to make 
toide], ku-shabusha, T. V, ; 
ku-shabuka, /. V, 

Open, to he, ku-kalla mwazi. 
*Open space, kianzi, generally at 
the entrance to a village ; mwa- 
la, a cleared space for danc- 
ing. 

Oppose, to, kn-ingila 'gati, ku-si- 
mana, ku-tetela. 

Opposite, chambuko. 

Oppress, to, ku-onela, ku-tirira. 

Oppression, utiriri. 

Oppressor, mtiriri. 

Or, ango. 

Orange, ichun^. 

Ordeal, m'guli. * 

Order, to [to command], ku-ga- 
mba, ku-gora,ku-uza ; [to put 
in order], ku-ika kirani, ku- 
boesa. 
, Origin, hambiri kwake, kutlyoa 
kwake. 

Ornament, tandai-a. 

Orphan, mkiwa. 

Oryx, taraahi. 

Ostrich, nya'ga. 

Other, ziina. 
Others, wanioju. 

OugM, ku-fweni [lit. to helwve 



one] ; yanifweni ku-genda, if 

hehhves me to go, i. e. / ought 

tfi go ; baha [lit. better] [sec 

Chrammar]. 
Our, -etu. 
Out, shigati. 
OiU, to come, ku-fuma. 
Outlet, andu ku-fuma, ilanga. 
Otctside, shigati. 
Over, lugulu. 
Over, to he [to remain over], ku- 

hangalika ; [to he fnisJied], 

ku-dua, ku-sila ; [to siorpass], 

ku-isa. 
Overcome, to, ku-sima. 
Overflow, to, ku-tika. 
Overhead, igulu. 
Overjoy, to, ku-bwelo na ndigi. 
Overturn, to, ku-galula, T. V. ; 

ku-galuka, /. V, 
Overwhelm, to, ku-sima. 
Owe, to, ku-leilo [lit. to he 

dunned] ; ku-kalla mdeni, fo 

he a debtor. 
Own, -angu mwen, -ako umweu, 

etc. 
4 Owner, mwenyi, tatie. 
Ox, ng'ombe. 



Pace, kigendo. 

Pack up, to, ku-funga. 

Pad for the hsad, ngata. 

Padding [soviething soft to light 

upon], kisasaka. 
Padlock, kufuli. 
Pain, kuluma. 
Pain, to, ku-luraa, ku-harii^^a, 

ku-shaha ; [7ny head aches], 

nilyigo n'choiigo ; [to feci 

pahi\, ku-sikila kuluma. 
^Paint, rangi ; [red ochre], ilo- 

ngo. 
\ Paint, to, ku-vila rang! ; — loith 

red ochre, ku-kwita ilongo. 
Palm [cocoa-nut tree], mnyanzi- 

gi ; [mkindu], lubale. 



110 



VOCABULARY. 



Palm of the hand, lui. 

Paiit, to, ku-sonda. 

Pap [the nipple], titi. * 

Papaw, papai. 

Paper, karatasi. 

Parable, ikatanisho. 

Pardon, ku-sigo. 

Pardon, to, ku-siga \lit. to let 

alone]. 
Pare, to [of sugar-cane], ku-se- 

ma. 
Part, fungu. 
Part, to, ku-taganya, T, V, ; ku- 

tagana, /. V. 
Pass, ngila, ilanga. 
Pass, to, ku-isa, jT. V. ; ku-ita, 

I. V. ; — over, ku-airibuka ; 

— over a fault, ku-siga ; — 
through, ku-tsira ; [to maJce 
one's way through grass or 
hush], ku-vula, ku-vunja mba- 
le. 

Patch, mrafu [lit. a rag], nda- 

mi. 
Path, ngila ; [a newly trodden 

path], mvori. 
Patient, to he, ku-raniagia. 
Pause, to, ku-chagia. 
Pay, to, ku-shana, ku-riha, ku- 

lipa ; — for an injury, ku-ta- 

hisa. 
^Pea [rmimmy pea], sliugu. 
PeoAie, sere. 

Peace, to inake, ku-shana. 
Peak, durau. 
Peck, to, ku-dona. 
Peel, to, sugar-cane, ku-sema ; 

— hananas, peas, etc. , ku-oa ; 

— hark off trees, ku-konola,i 
T. V. ; ku-konoka, /. V. 

Peep, to, ku-sungulila. 
Peg out a skin, to, ku-amba. 
Pegs, mambo. 
Penis, gudi. 
People, wandu. 
Ti!j:)per [native], pilipili. 
Perceive, to, ku-ona, ku-manya. 



Perhaps, ngfera, ngazo, used as 

follows: kadea ngazo uona, 

perhaps you will see. 
Peril, asara. 
Period [a long period], luma*; [a 

short period], kafwani. 
Perish, to, ku-haita ; — cause to, 

ku-haitisha. 
Permit, to, ku-sbaia, ku-ruma- 

gia. 
Perplex, to, ku-kambisa cbougo, 

T. V. ', ku-kamba bhoiigo, 

/. V. ; ku-laha, /. V. ; ku-la- 

hisa, r. V. 
Persecute, to, ku-gusa, ku-fuku- 

za, ku-butsa. 
Persevere, to, ku-lwana [lit. to 

fight]. 
fPerson, mundu ; [sv^ih a person], 

ng'anya, mwaita. 
Perspiration, irugudia. 
Perspire, to, ku-rugudia. 
Persuade, to, ku-hawa gore, ku- 

funda [lit. to tea^h]. 
Pestilence, mtutumo. 
Pestle, musi. 
Phlegm, ikolola. 
Pice, ipesa. 
Pick, to [to choose], ku-sagiila ; 

[to gather beans, peas, etc.], 

ku-aba, ku-rura ; [to pick up], 

ku-sboa. 
Picture, sura, ifwani. 
Piece, Iwandj, kindi, kikundi ; 

[a short piece of stick of any 

kind], kikore. 
Pierce, to, ku-pola. 
Pig, ngulue. 

Pigeon, iringo lya maomu. 
Pile, kitungu [see heap]. 
Pile, to, ku-kwezanya [lit. to put 

on tJie top of each other]. 
Pinch, to, ku-tungula. 
Pine-apple, inanasi. 
Pip, ndanga. 
Pipe [toba^-pipe], toza. 
[ Pistoly "baaloiok. 



VOCABULARY. 



Ill 



Pit, kina. 

PUy, ishima. 

Pity, to, ku-fwila wa3'a, ku-fwila 

ugoma. 
Place, andu ; [in such a place], 

iteni. 
PlacCf to, ku-ika. 
Plagy,e, ukongo. 
Pla^ie, to, ku-gama. 
^lain [the plaiiis], kireti ; [a 

flat piece of ground], kiri- 

ndi. 
Plait, to, ku-luka. 
Plan, njama. 
Plan, to, ku-dea njama. 
Plank, mgogo. 
Plant, mwiti. 
Plant, to, ku-tiba. 
^Pla^dation, banana, ipare. 
Plaster, Uganda. 
Plaster, to, ku-kanda. 
Plaie, kihoro. 
Play, to, ku-haka ; \to play an 

instrument], ku-kwita gunda, 

etc. ; ku-teteza, ku-bang'isa, 

ku-bang'a. 
Plead for, to, ku-lombela.» 
Please, to, ku-bwelela, ku-seke- 

sa ; \as you please], ■ andu 

usliaia umwen. 
Pleased, to be, ku-bwelo. 
Pleas^cre, ku-bwelo. 
Pledge, mfungo. 
Pledge, to, ku-ika mfungo. 
Plenty, -ingi. 
Plenty, to be \to be numerous]. 



'•Poison [arrow poison], usungu. 
Pole, mwiti. 
Polish, to, ku-hotsa. 
Pond, izia, ndiwa. 
Ponder, to, ku-gelela, ku-iriku- 

nya, ku-erekeza. 
Poor, mkiwa. 
Porcupine, sasa. 
.•Porridge, mswara. 
Porter caravan, mchukuzi. 
Possess, to [to have], ku-kalla 
^ na ; [to possess cattle], ku-fuga» 
Possessions, mali. 
Possessor, mwenyi, mwen, tatie. 
Post, nguzo. 
Postpone, to, ku-dilisa, T. V. ; 

ku-dila, /. V, 
Pot cooking, nyungu. 
'Potato, sweet, ikaji. 
Potter, mnmbi nyungu. 
i[»Pou9id, to, Indian com, ku-onda, 
ku-buntla ; sugar-cane, kn- 
ula ; [to bruise with stones], 
ku-shana. 
Pour, to, in, ku-sukila ; — aiU, 
ku-kupula, ku-tila, ku-bu- 
dula. 
Poverty, ukiwa. 
Powder, unga ; [gun^xncder], ba- 

ruti. 
Power, ndigi. 
i^Pra^tise to, with a bow and 
arrow, ku-bola. 
Praise, nguma [lit. fame]. 
Praise, to, ku-lika, ku-kasa. 
Prate, to, ku-dongocha, ku-do- 
ngoda, ku-dongola. 



ku-era. 
Plvjck, to, a fowl, ku-kushua ; [to UPray, to, ku-lomba, ku-voia. 
p^Ul up], ku-kula ; a flower, nPrayer, kulomba. 
ku-alia. 



Plucked up, to be, ku-kuka. 
Plug, to, ku-zisa. 
Plutider, to, ku-ruka. 
Pocket, kikuchu [see bag]. 
Point, mutu. 

Poi'n^, to, with the finger, ku- 
lota. 



jj^reach, to, ku-gora, ku-chila. 

Precious, kima kibwaa. 

Precipice, ivoiigo, i'gamba. 

Prefer, to, ku-snaia. 

Pregnant, to be, ku-kalla na 

kifu. 
\Prc/paTe, to W-vksa. kka^ixi^ ku.- 



112 



VOCABULARY. 



Present, inosi. 

FreserUf tOy ku-nosa, ku-hawa ; 

[to be present], ku-kalla aha. 
Press, to, ku-sindilila, ku-tsira. 
Pretence, 'dali. 
Prevent, to, ku-ima. 
Prey, madiwo ; [birds of prey], 

mowe, kite; Iwigi, a small 

swift kite ; mang'olo, a large 

black raven ; sangangoju, 

eagle. 
Pricker, humina. 
Pride, ung'eti. 
Prison, kifango. 
Prisoner, mfungo. 
Privy, sakeni. 
Proceed, to, ku-genda ; [go on f], 

ndoko ! haya cho ! [come on l], 

inde ! 
Proclaim, to, ku-gorera, ku-chi- 

la. 
J Proclainaiion, gore, ralomo, ila- 

Procurable, to be, ku-deika, ku- 

patikana. 
Produce for, to, ku-deila, ku- 

patila. 
Profit, mbambara. 
Profit, to, ku-dea mbambara. 
Prohibit, to, ku-rigida. 
Promise, ilagano. 
Promise, to, ku-laga. 
Prop, sagi. 
Prop top, to, ku-figika ; [to lean 

U2}on], kn tsinila. 
Proper, karakara, kirani. 
Property, mali. 
^Proph-esy, to, ku-lagula [lit. to 

divine], 
^Prophet, inla^li [lit, a diviner]. 
Prosper, to, ku-dea mlungu wa- 

loli. 
Protect, to, ku-liuda, ku-manya, 

ku-kinga. 
Protection, ulindiri. 
/^ro^eclor, mlindivi. 
/'^tuf, to de, ku-ng'eta. 



Prove, to, ku-tima. 

Provide, to [to put away], kii- 

ika. 
Provisions, [food for a journey], 

leu ; [food in general], clia- 

kulya ; [grain], viro. 
Provoke, to, ku-kumba hari, ku- 

ama. 
Pull, to, ku-ruta ; — doum a 

house, ku-fuchula ; [Jioicse 

pulled down], ku-fuchuka. 
Pull up, to, ku-kula. 
Pulled up, to be, ku-kuka. 
Pulp of a calabash, ihado. 
*Pumpkin [the plant], mrengi ; 

[fruit], irengi ; [shell used to 

carry liquids m], kishori, ka- 

zama, iholoshi. 
Punish, to, ku-tirira. 
Punishment, utriri. 
Purchase, to, ku-gula. 
Purchaser, mguli. 
Purgative, uganga 'gwa kufwa- 

ha. 
Purge, to, ku-fwahisa. 
Purify, to, ku-elesa. 
Purpose, kasidi, 'dali. 
Purse, kikuchu. 
Pursue, to [to follow], ku-irima ; 

[to hunt], ku-diwa ; [to seek 

after], ku-hada, 
Pus, ufilo. 

Push, to, ku-sindika."^ 
PiU, to an end, to, ku-duisa ; — 

a pot on the fire, ku-jigisa ; — 

away, ku-ika ; — down, ku- 

tula ; — forth leaves, ku-rua, 

ku-mrura ; — in, ku-in^za ; 

— in order, ku-ika kiram ; — 
off, ku-dilisa, T, V. ; ku-dila, 
I. V, ', ^- on clothes, ku-rwa- 
ra ; — on a turban, ku-riga 
kilemba ; — out, ku-funya ; 

— oiU a fire, ku-zimisha ; — 
* ovi cattle to keep, ku-tura ; — 

ready for icse, kurika kii-ani ; 



VOCABULARY. 



113 



ku-golola ; — to flighty ku- 
kimbilisa, ku-dudugisa. 
Pytho7if satu. 

Q 

QibaUj kwale. 

Quake, to, ku-suka. 

Quarrel, to, ku-rashana, ku- 

kwerana, ku-omana. 
Quench, to, ku-zimisha. 
Question, kukota. 
Quickly, shwoshwo, kafwani ; 

{ru7i quickly], kinibila na 

isege. 
Quiet, to he, ku-cyamala ; [to he 

very quiet], ku-nyaraala chwi. 
Quieten, to, ku-nj^anialisha. 
Quietly, mbole. 
Quite, kamare, -ose, putu. 

R 

Race, to, ku-isana [lit. to strive], 
^Rafter, ihalo. 

Rag, irasi, mrafu ; [a worn-out 
piece], kidemo. 
^ Rain, mvula ; the greater rains 
are called mvula ya ishika ; 
they last from the middle of 
March to the middle of May. 
The lesser rains are called 
mvula ya vuli ; they last from 
the middle of October to the 
middle of December, 
^ Rain, to, ku-nyesa mvula, T. V. ; 
ku-nya mvula, /. F. ; \it 
rains], mvula yanya ; [it has 
stopped rawing], mvula ya- 
ela. 

Rainbow, ndana ya mvula. 

Raise, to, ku-uuula, ku-joaa ; 
— jfrom the dead, ku-zusha. 
^Ram [a male sheep], auru. 

Ramble, to, ku-selasela. 

Rash, to be, ku-bile [lit. to he 
fierce]. 

Bat, mbanya. 

Jiat^ter [hcUer\ baha. 



Rations, posho, leu. 

Raw, -ishi ; makes mbislii with 

Tiouns of the third class. 
Ray, mlengezi. 
Razor, kiharo. 
Reach, to, ku-fika, ku-busa ; 

— cause, to, ku-fisa. 
Read, to, ku-shoma. 
Ready, to be, ku-kalla kirani. 
'Reap, to, Indian corn ku-kwa- 

sha ; millet, ku-kwita ; bea)is, 

ku-aha ; peas, ku-rura. 
Rear, to, ku-lela. 
Reason, kwa kimuni [see ca%isc]. 
Reason, to, ku-erekeza. 
Rebel, to, ku-lega kusikila [lit. 

to refuse to obey]. 
Rebuke, to, ku-kinya, ku-rasha. 
Recant, to, ku-kana. 
Receive, to, ku-usa. 
Reckon, to, ku-tala, ku-wala 

sabu. 
Recline, to, ku-naraga. 
Recognize, to, ku-tambula. 
Recollect, to, ku-kumbuka, ku- 

maiiya. 
Reconcile, to, ku-patanisha, ku- 

shanisha. 
Recon/iiled, to become, ku-pata- 

na, ku-sikilaiia, ku-shana. 
Recover, to, ku-boa. 
^Red, nguudu ; anything in- 
clined to be red is caJlc<l 

mkisu. 
iJHed, to be, ku-kisua. 
Redeem, to, ku-kombola. 
Redeemer, mkomboli. 
Redemption, ukomboli. 
Redv^ce, to, ku-erecha, ku-pungu- 

za, ku-uja nyuma. 
Reed [ca^ie], mraugi. 
Reed'biick, ndoli. 
Reflect, to [to think], ku-irik:i 

nya, ku-erekeza. 
Refuge, makirabililo. 
Ke/xiKul, (o, k-vx-^Uslva^ ku- 

^ 1 



114 



VOOABULABT. 



Rrfusey tOy ku-legela, T, F. ; ku- 

lega^ /. V. 
Begret, to, ku-liarisa ngolo [lit, 

the heart to pain\ ku-riha. 
Heject, tOy ku-taga [lit. to throw 

atcay], 
H^oicey tOy ku-bwelela, T, V,; 

Ku-bwela, /. F. 
^Helatiotis [relatives]y wa mzetu^ 

etc. * 

Relea^y tOy ku-fuugula, ku- 

siga. 
Helisky fOy ku>singllo. 
Rely H)Hm^ tOy ku-lolila. 
Jiefnainy /o, ku-kalla, ku-tula; 

[f4^ be Irft otvr], ku-hangalika ; 

— mrakfy ku-Iala meso, ku- 

lavile [fiee. to /»>]. 
Kem<iimirr, a*ga *gahangalika 

f///. M<w fh^if are l^]. 
/^»♦»«'7»^fT, /(>, ku-kumbuka, ku- 

mniiya. 
AVwt'wi/, fi\ k\i-kumbuslia, ku- 

nmnyivsa. 

Rewity to [fo ;wt>/<w], ku-siga 

|7fV. to Mtiv c»7«m«»]. 
Kem^^Yy ti\ kiMikisft, T, T. ; ku- 

uka, f. r. 
Ken^i, fo, ku-ra«hura, 7. F, ; ku- 

ini*iiuka, /. l". 
Ri^ounee^ to, ku-kana, ku-siga. 
ikV/KiiV, tOy ku-boesa. 
R^Vi to [to take revetige]y ku- 

Iwana sill. 
Repeai>y tOy ku-dea kaili 
Repenly tOy ku-riha. 
Riplyy tOy ku-ujisila ; [to ariswer 

when called]y ku-tika. 
Reproaxihy tOy ku-tetela [lit. to 

9C0ld\. 

R^ulsey tOy ku-gusa, 
ReqtiestSy luahaJi. 
Rescue, to, ku-vuvula, ku-kiza. 
ResembUy tOy ku-fwanana, ku- 

kalla karakara. 
JS^j^^Jm-asilo, ku-dea hail 



Resisty to, ku-ima [lit. toprevevU]. 
Resolvey tOy ku-pasa i\jama [lit. 

to come to a conchcsion]. 
Respect, tOy ku-koga [lit. to fear]. 
Resty tOy ku-zumua ; [to breathe], 

ku-tsarusa. 
Resting-place, kizumuo, andu 

kwa kuzumua. 
RestorCy to, ku-iga, ku-igisa, 

ku-galisha. 
Retrain, to, ku-ima, ku-hasisa. 
Resurrection, ku-zuka. 
Retain, to, ku-hasisa, ku-wata, 

ku-mauzii-a. 
Return, tOy ku-ujisa, T. V. ; ku- 
lya, T, V. ; ku-uya, I. V. ; ku- 
galisha, T. V. ; Ini-gala, /. V. 
Revealy to, ku-ooya. 
RevengCy ku-lwamla sili. 
ReverencCy ishima. 
Reverence, to, ku-koga. 
RevivCy tOy ku-ujisa moyo, T. V. ; 

ku-uja moyo, /. V, 
Revolt, to [to be disgusted], ku- 

asilo. 
Reixflvcy to, ku-marisa, T. V. ; 

ku-mara, /. V, 
Retoard, to, ku-nosana [lit. to 
give to each other], ku-hawa 
[lit. to give]. 
RhinoceroSy mbela. 
Riby Iwaro. 
•RicCy mpunga. 
Rich many mzuri. 
RicheSy mali. 
RidiculCy to, ku-sekela, ku- 

zuha. 
RiglUy hachi, fulo. 
Right haihdy mkono 'gwa kiju, 

mkono 'gwa kilume. 
Righteousness, hachi. 
Rindy iganda. 
Ringy tele, ngome. 
Ring a belly to, ku-kwita» kizo- 

manzi. 
Ringeary kipuli. 
Ripe, to become, ku-irwa. 



VOCABULARY. 



115 



Bipen, tOy ku-irwisha. 

Rise, to, ku-uka ; — caiise to, 
ku-ukisa ; — from the dead, 
ku-zuka ; \to ascevd], ku-joka ; 
\to stand], ku-kalla kimusi ; 

— oft?ie sun, ku-cha ; ijua lya- 
cbega, t?be sun rises ; ku-fuma, 
ijua lyafiima, the sun rises; 
nachelo, t?ie sun rose upon me. 

Bisk, to, ku-tima. 
Biver, mweta. 
Biver-sand, msanzagala. 
Boad, ngila. 
Boar, to, ku-mma. 
Boast, Ifi, ku-ocha. 
-^Boh, to, ku»soka, ku-ambiila. 
'•Bobber, kiting'a. 
^Bobbery, uting'a. 
Bock, iw«. 

Bod, ndata, msenge. 
Boll, to, ku-bingilisha, T. V, ; 

ku-bingilika, /. V, 
Boo/, kijungulila. 
Boom, nyumba ; [place], andu ; 

[spa^ce], andu kutuu. 
Boot, mriginga; — of sugar-cane, 

shina. 
Boot, to take, ku-palala. 
Boot up, to, ku-kula. 
Bope, lugol, ngoi, gunga. 
Bot, to, ku-olesa, T, V, ; ku-ola, 

/. K. 
Boughness, igiirufu. 
Bound, mviringa. 
Bound, to, ku-viringisba, ku-dea 

mviringa. 
Bouse, to, ku-ukisa. 
Bow [a line], mraba, ilongo. 
Bow, to makcy ku-zubaua, ku* 

odana. 
Bub, to, ku-hotsa. 
Bubbish, majala. 
Buffle, to, ku-dudula [f|. 
Bu4n, to, ku-haitisa. 
Buined, to be, ku-baita. 
Bun, to, ku-kimbila, ku-duduga ; 

— cause to, ku-kimbilisa, ku- 



dudugisa ; — doum a steq} 

place, ku-doromoka. 
Bust, ihubua. 
Bust, to, ku-bubua. 

S 

Sa4:k, wararo [see bag], 
kikicrifice, sadaka. 
pSoA^rifice, to, ku-dea sadaka. 
Sadness, ubaitiri 'gwa ngolo [lit^ 

the bitterness of the heart]. 
Safe, maana, banana, moro. 
Sake [for this cause], kwa bung', 

kwani ; [kwa uyu], for him. 
Saliva, mate. 
Salt, munyu ; [native salt], ki- 

sherere. 
tSalutation, kurogoa. 

The meeting salviatuyn is a.s 
follows ." — 

(A) Voro ! 

(b) Voro ! Mzima ? 

(a) Mzima. 

(b^ Ndo vidzo ! 

(a) Simanya uwe. 

(b) a ! nami ni mzima. 
(a) Ndo vidzo. 
Then they begin to ask the 

news. With women it is 
usual to ask them if they are 
doing whaZ they happen to be 
doing at the time. 
Parting saliUaiums : — 

(a) Nagala ndam kalle ma- 
ana, or banana. 

(b) Aya ! nawe gale banana. 
Salvie, to, ku-rogoa, ku-lamusa. 
Salvation, ku-okoka. 
Same, -o -en [lit. that is it]. 
Sand, msanzagala. 
Sandal, kilatu. 
Sap, meji, mazia, bigati. 
Satan, sbetanL 
Satisfy, to, ku-katisa, T. V. ; 

kii-kata, I, V. ; — with food, 
ku-gutisa ; [to give pleasure^ 



116 



VOCABULAar. 



ku-bwela ; [to be satisjied]^ ku- 
guta ; [to 8cUicUe]f ku-kojesa, 
T. V. ; ku-koja, /. V, [lU. to 
tire one], 

SaiLce, mboga. 

Sa%Lce-pan, nyungii. 

iSavey tOf ku-okola, ku-kiza. 



Saved J to 6e, ku-okoka, ku-kila-^wSeosori^, the proper seasons are — 



tiaviuLory niwokoli, mkizi. 
S'avou'i'y, to be, ku-slnga ; — to 

7iiake, ku-singiza. 
Sau'y insumeuo. 
SaWy to, ku-pasa na msnmeno. 
Say, tOy ku-gora, ku-gamba, ku- 

uza. 
Scald, to, ku-isha na meji, T. V. ; 

ku-ia iia meji, /. V, 
Scare, to, ku-gusa, ku-kuniba 

oga, ku-kema. 
Scatter, to, ku-sagicA, T. V. ; 

ku-saga, I. K ; — seed, ku- 

fitsa. 
Scent, mi-uki. 
Scent, to, ku-kwita mruki. 
ScJwoly msikiti, kushomeui [lit. 

the 27lace of learning]. 
Scold, to, ku-tetcla, ku-iasha. 
Scorch, to, by fire, ku-lunguslia, 

T. V. ; ku-lungula, /. K. 
^ Score [20], koruja. 
Scorn, to, ku-nienya [lit. to 

hate]. 
Scwpion, kishushe. 
Scour, to, ku-hotsa. 
Scraps, vicliaclie vicliaclie. 
Scratch, to, ku-kuiia ; — like a 

hen, ku-fukula ; [to bruise], 

ku-shogonoia, T. V. ; ku-slio- 

gonoka, /. V. 
Scream [a cry for Jielp], luku- 

nga. 
Scream, to, ku-kema. 
^ Screen, the wattle and daub screen 

inside a native hut is called 

ukindos 
Si'ro/u^ozis and gang remits so-res, 
nmtanaj mwitL 



Scrub, to, ku-hotsa. 
Scuffle, to, ku-watana. 
Scum, ifulo. 
Sea, bahari. 
Searchy to, ku-liada ; - 

lighty ku-limika. 
SeasoThy ituku. 



with a 



Ishika, equul to our Ma/rehy 
April, aiid May ; the greater 
rainy season. Kwalazi, June, 
Jvlyy August, and Septeinber ; 
the cold season, with little or 
no rain, Vuli, October, No* 
vejnber, and December; the 
lesser rainy season, Easkazi, 
January and Febrvjary, the hot 
and dry season, June and 
July is called Mtsuo. Th^ 
coldest months are Jime and 
July. The hottest months are 
January and February, 

See, to, ku-oua ; [to catch a 
glimpse of], ku-pesa. 

Seedy mbeyu, ndanga, ndembe. 

Seeky to, ku-hada ; — -for, ku- 
hadila. 

Seem, to, ku-oneka. 

Seize, to, ku-wata. 

Seldom [to be seldom seen], ku- 
onoka uzaui, 

Self, -en. 

Selfish, to be, ku-kushaia mwen 
[lit. to love oneself] , 

Sell, to, ku-taga. 

Se7id, to, ku-tuma, ku-gensa ; — 
to a person, ku-gensela ; — 
away, ku-gusa ; — back, ku- 
galisha, ku-ujisa, ku-uja. 

Sense, suku [?]. 

Separate, tOy ku-ika mbale, ku- 
funya mbale ; [to distinguish^, 
ku-tambula ; [to leave one an- 
otlier], ku-tagana ; [to separate 
p&)ple ichan fighting], ku-ta- 
ganya. 

Serpent, nyoVa. 



VOCABULARY. 



117 



Servant, intuTnishi. 

Serv^, to, ku-tumika. 

Service, iitumishi, iitumiki. 

Set, ku-ika ; — a trap, ku-tega '^ 
[of the suTi], ku-swa, ijua lya- 
swa, [tlie Sim is set] ; naswelo, 
the sun is set upon me ; — in 
arder, ku-ika kiiani; — on fire, 
ku-kuraba moto ; — to fight, 
kii-lwanislia ; — open a door, 
ku-ika mwazi ; set up, ku-ika 
kimusi. 

Settle an affair, to, ku-pasa ma- 
teto, ku-pasamlandu ; — down, 
ku-tsarua. 
^Seven, nifungate. 
^Seventeen, ikumi na mfungate. 
^Seventy, mirongo mfungate. 

Severe, to be, ku-kula. 

Seio, to, ku-tlyaia. 

Shade, kiju, mviii-u. 

Shade, to, ku-kinga. 

Shadow, kii-enderende. 

Shake, to, ku-sukasuka, ku-nya- 
vurisha, T, V. ; ku-uyavuiti, 
/. V, 

Shall, -je- [see Grammar']. 

Shame, haya. 

Shame, to, ku-fusha haya. 

Shape, ombo. 

Shape, to, ku-umba. 

Share, fungu, a thing which 
belongs to more than one 
person is called -a ngavo. 

Share, to, ku-sara, ku-sarisa. 

Sharp, to be, ku-kala. 

Sharpen, to, ku-nola. 

Sharpness, ukali. 

Shave, to, ku-hara. 

She, iye [see Gframmar], 
^Sheath, joa, the strips of wood, 
under the leather, mwiyo. 

Shed, kianda. 

Shed leaves, to, ku-andula, T, V. ; 
ku-anduka, 7. V, 

STieep, ng'onzi. 

Sh^lteVf pango. 



Shelter, to, ku-kinga. 

Shelter, to take, ku-duha. 

Shepherd, nilisa. 

Shield, ngao. 

Shield, to, ku-kinga. 

Shin, iwindi. 

Shin£, to, ku-ng*ala ; — to c%use 

to, ku-ng'arisa. 
Ship, merikebu. 
ShiH, kanzu. 
Shiver, to, ku-sukasuka. 
Shivering, msuko. 
Shock, to, ku-tunusa. 
Shocked, to be, ku-tunuka. 
Shoot a gun, to, ku-kwita ; [with 
* bow aiid arrow], ku-kumba. 
Shop, iduka. 
Short, -vui. 
Short, to fall, ku-chuka, mbua 

yachukile, there is not enoicgh 

[seed] for the garden. 
Shorten, to, ku-erecha, ku-liingi- 

lisa, ku-pasa. 
Shortly, ndakwen. 
Should, mangu, macha [see aux- 
iliary verbs]. 
Shoulder, iwega. 
Shout, to, ku-pang'a [lit. to call 

loudly for one], ku-oda, ku- 

kema. 
Show, to, ku-onyeza, ku-onya ; 

— ligtd, ku-langaza. 
Shoicer, mshushuii, mrundi. 
Shrev;d man, mlachu. 
Shrewdness, ulachu. 
Shriek, to, ku-kema. 
Shrivel, to, ku-nyaza, T. V. ; 

ku-nyala, /. V, 
Shrub, kasaka. 

ShiU, to, ku-rugara, ku-funga. 
Sick, to be, ku-kalla mkongo. 
Sick, to be very, ku-lwala. 
Sickness, ukongo. 
Side [the sides], mbalembale ; 

[this side], igasi kunu ; [the 

place »ldift\yvj svaoe^^''*^.-^*^:^^^^. 



\ 



118 



VOCABULART. 



Sighy tOy ku-sonda, ku-kula 

mruki. 
SigJUf kuona. 
Sigii, alama. 

i^ilence, tOy ku-nyamalisha. 
SUenty to he, ku-iiyamala. 
iSilluicsSy upambafu, uduu. 
Silver y feza. 
Sm2>lelcnif mdu wa duu, mpa- 

inbafu. 
Sifi, kaung'a, makosa. 
Sin, tOy kudea kaung'a, ku-kosa. 
SincCy fuma, hangu. 
Sing, tOy ku-imba. 
^ Simjla man [tminarried ma?i], 

iiigaro ; [Uie hoitse of a single 

man]^ gaix). 
^ Single woman^ mchana. 
Sinky tOy ku-zamisha, T, V. ; 

ku-zama, /. V. ; ku-malisa, 

T. V, ; ku-malika, /. V, 
SinneVy mkaung'a, mkosi. 
Si^^y to \to taste], ku-toa. 
Sistevy mwana wa mawe [lit. a 

child of my mother] ; wokwe- 

tu wa wake, otir sister ; wo 

kwenu, yours ; wokwawe, 

tJieirs. 
Sit, tOy ku-kalla kitembo ; [of a 

hen]y ku-lalila. 
^SiXy tandatu. 
4^ Sixteen, ikumi na tandatu. 
^ Sixth, katandatu. 
^ SisGty, miroDgo raitandatu. 
Sizey ubwaa, kimo. 
Skilly uya. 
Skimy tOy ku-agila. 
Skiny mrongo, ngingo ; [a skin 

to sleep on]y kishelo ; [a skin 

vscd as a sleeping mai when on 

ajotirney]y njai'ul»a. 
Skiny tOy ku-shiiija. 
Skirt, iiinda. 
^ Shully the heads of dead people 

ft?^e ditg up after decomposition 
a/id j?/ace(i in caves; in that 
^^^i^ ^Aey are called ngoma 



Skyy mlunguni [lit, to or with 

God]. 
Slander, sheshe. 
Slander, to, ku-kumba sheshe, 

ku-zigirira, ku-lagalaga. 
SlandereTy msheshe. 
Slapy tOy ku-chafa, ku-disa, ka- 

kwita. 
Slashy to, ku-tema. 
^laughter y to [to kill by cutting 
^ the throat]y ku-shinja ; [to kill]f 

ku-ulaga. 
J^SlavCy msunyi. 
''Slay in battle, to, ku-ulaga 

mboi. 
Sleepy haring'a. 
Sleepy tOy ku-lala, ku-tungura ; 

— cause tOy ku-lalisha, ku-tu- 

nguriaha ; [to doze], ku-tumi- 

ngila. 
Sleeping-placCy ulalo. 
Slender y -suse. 
Slip, to, ku-sharadia ; [to slip 

dovm a steep plaice], ku-doro- 

moka ; [out of one's hand]) ku- 

fitaika. 
Slip-knot, shagala. 
Slit, to, ku-zaia, ku-rashura. 
Sloih, ugadi. 
Slowly, mbolembole. 
Small [thii\], -suse ; [little], -cha- 

che. 
Smxdlness, ususe, uchache. 
STnall'pox, mwadocha, kero. 
Smjart, to, ku-shaha, ku-harisa. 
Smear, to, ku-vila. 
Smell, to, ku-nusa, T, V. ; ku- 

nuka, /. F. ; [a had smell], ku- 

nuuga, nanungilo [lit, it is 

smelt by me] ; nasikila kunu- 

ka, I perceive a smell, 
Sm£lt, to, ku-teleka. 
'^Smith, black, mshana. 
Smoke, mosi. 
Smoke, to, ku-fukiza, T. V, ; ku- 

fuka, J. V. \ \to smoke tiQj6<M»cJ\^ 

ku-puta kirobako* 



VOCABULARY. 



119 



S7noothy to &e, ku-tendera. 
Smoothef to, ku-shalaza, ku-te- 

ndereza. 
Snake, nyoka ; satu, python ; 

are, cobra [?] ; kilimo mbimbi, 

a long black snake. 
Snare, mtego. 
Snare, to, ku-tega. 
Sneeze, to, ku-tisha. 
Snore, to, ku-gona. 
Snuff, kimbako. 
Snuff-box, kiko cha kiinbako. 
So, hung', hung' kweu, -en Tnay 

be used with its appropriate 

prefix ; ko kwen, just so. 
Soak, to, ku-rwika. 
Soap, sabuui. 
Soft, to be, ku-hanyua. 
Soften, to, ku-hanyuisa. 
Soil, msanga. 
Soil, to, ku-luisa. 
^^ Soldier, askari ; t?ie yotmg 

vxirriors are called bonjo. 
Sole \pf the footi, Iwaio. 
Solitude, weke. 
Solve, to, ku-tambula, ku-ika 

mwazi. 
^Some — others, wamoju — wamo- 

ju ; {some one else s], -a mu- 

ndu. 
Somebody, mundu. 
Sometimes, ijua moju [lit, one 

day]. 
^Son, mwana walume. 
SoTig, lumbo. 
Soon, kafwani, ndakwSn. 
Soot, makala 'ga mosi. 
Soothe, to, ku-tsarusa, ku-ngola- 

ngola. 
Sore, kilonda. 

Sorrow, vilambo, buga, kiliio. 
Sorry, ^ be, ku-riha, ngolo ku- 

lila, ngolo ku-harisa. 
m^Soul, roho. 
Sound, Iwa^a. 
Soundness, banana, maana. 
Sour, to be, ku-bia. 



Source, andu kufuma [lit, a place 
to come from]. 

Sow, to, ku-anda. 

Space, andu kutuu [lit, an empty 
place]. 

Span, ilamba. 

Spark, isese. 

Sparkle, to, ku-ng'ara. 

SpeaJc, to, ku-gamba, ku-goi*a^ 
ku-teta ; [to make a speech], 
ku-chila ; [to begin a speech]. 
ku-lunga ; [to speak for], ku- 
tetela ; [to speak against], ku- 
gora lagelage ; [to speak 
properly], ku-gora kiiani ; 
[to speak loudly], ku-gora na 
ndigi. 

Speaker, mgori, mgambi, mchiU. 
J^ Spear, ichumu. 

Speech, mateto. 

Spend, to, ku-tumila ; — time, 
ku-sinda. 

Spider, mbugi. 

Spi^l, to, ku-tila, T, V, ; ku-tika, 

/. r. 

Spin, to, ku-luka. 

Spirit [an evil spirit]^ pepo, 

mchumba kazi. 
Spit, mate. 

Spit, to, ku-chwila mate. 
Splash, to, ku-pachahisa, T, V. ; 

ku-j>achahika, /. r, ; ku-ta* 

risa, T. V, ; ku-taiika, /. F. 
Spleen, iwengu. 
Splice, to, ku-lunga. 
Splinter, kiala. 
Split, to, ku-paia, T, V, ; ku^ 

paika, /. V, 
Spoil, to, ku-nona, ku-hakila. 
Spoiled, to be, ku-noneka, ku- 

hakiUka, ku-hailikika. 
Spoon, luko. 
Sport, hako. 
Sport, to, ku-haka. 
Spot [a drop], katonya. 
iiyotted \a syotted qoai]^ mfao^ 



A 



120 



VOCABULARY. 



Sprain, to, ku-dufula, T, V. ; 
ku-dufuka, /. V, 

Spread, to \to tell out], ku-gore- 
ra ; [to make knovm], ku-ma- 
nyisa ; [to unfold], ku-kunju- 
la ; [to be spread out], ku-ku- 
njuka ; [to spread on the 



ground], ku-wala ; [to spreadm^Step-mother, a child calls his 



Old in the sttn], ku-auika. 

Spring, mtambo. 

Spring, to, ku-tarika. 

Sprinkle, to, ku-fitsa, ku-tarisa. 

S2)rout, to, ku-funya mguchu, 
ku-palala. 

Spiie, to, ku-kweza. 

Spur of a cock, Iwala. 

Spy, mzigani. 

Spy, to, ku-zigana. 

Squander, to, ku-tagataga. 

SqiuU, to, ku-tugusa. 

Squeak, to, ku-kema. 

Squeeze, to, ku-kamula, ku-tsira. 

Squint, mrei. 

Squint, to, ku-kalla na mrei. 

Stab, to, ku-tlyaia. 

Staff, ndata. 

Stalks of com be/ore the fruit is 
gathered, magere ; (ifter the 
fruit is gathered, matasa. 

Stammer, to, ku-gugumila. 

Stamp, to, ku-daha kigulu. 

Stand, to, ku-uka kimusi, ku- 
kalla kimusi ; — cattse to, ku- 
ika kimusi. 

Star, ndonde. 

Stare, to, ku-kula meso. 

Start, to [to begin], ku-tlyoisa, 
T. V. ; ku-tlyoa, /. V. ; [to 
start out], ku-fuma. 

Startle, to, ku-turukisa. 

Startled, to be, ku-turukia. 

Starve, to, ku-ulaga na njala, 
T. V. ; ku-fwa na njala, /. F". 

Stay, to, ku-kalla kitembo, ku- 
sinda ; [^o wait], icu-muka, ku- 

dafwa ; [to loiter]^ ku-muka- 

niiika. 



Steal, to, ku-iwa, ku-laka ; — 

cause, to, ku-lakisa. 
Steep, to, ku-rwika. 
Stem, of a tree, kirimba. 
Step, kitende. 
Step, to \to step on], ku-latila ; 

\to step ovir], ku-ambuka. 



st'p-mother mama. 

^tick [a man*s walking-stick], 
ndata ; [a woman's walking- 
stick], msenge ; [a short heavy 
stick], gongo ; [thin sticks for 
the roof of a house], ngombo, 
lugorabo ; [a stick for joining 
on to another], kilungi. 

Stick, to [to adhere], ku-naua, 
ku-wata. 

Still [till now], hatta lelo ; [after 
that], seua ; [still you go], wa- 
tula kugenda. 

Still, to be, ku-nyamala. 

Sting, to, ku-luma. 

Stink, to, ku-nuka lagelage, ku- 
nunga. 

Stir, to [to mix by stirring], ku- 
vuruga, ku-rua ; [to stir up 
strife], ku-kumba sheshe. 

Stomach, kifu. 

Stone, iwe. 

Stoop, to, ku-damisa, T. V, ; ku- 
damika, /. V. 

Stop, to [to block up], ku-kinga, 
ku-ulaga ; [to cease], ku-nya- 
mala, ku-siga ; [to cause to 
cease], ku-nyamalisha ; [to 
h^Jd], ku-manzira ; [to stand 
still], ku-kalla kimusi. 

Sto2rper, kifindiko. 

Store up, to, ku-ika. 

Store-home, kitundu, kitagati. 

Sto7'y [tale], lugano. 

Stou^t, to be, ku-banda ; — cause 
to, ku-bandisa. 

Stoutness, urifu. 

Straighiy to be, "kvi-^oVoVv 

Straightefn^ to, \l\3l-^o\o\».. 



VOCABULARY. 



121 



Strangeness^ ugeni. 

Stranger, mgeni. 

Strangle, to, ku-tswaia. 

Strap, mkoa. 

Stray, to, ku-lagaia. 

Stream, mweta. 

Strength, ndigi, nguvu. 

Strengthen, to, ku-lunga ndigi. 

Stretch, to, ku-golola. 

Strew, to, ku'tilatila, kii-fitsa-, 

fitsa. 
Strife, kondo. 
Strike, fa, ku-kwita, ku-riba, ku- , 

daha, ku-shana. i 

String, mriiisi, luzi. 
String heads, to, ku-wakn. 
String of heads, kinengele. 
String of ring-heads, mrere. 
Strip, to \to plunder], ku-am- 

bula. 
Stripe, mchori, mchililingo. 
Strive, to, ku-isana, ku-lwana. 
Strong, to he, ku-kalla na ndigi. 
Stroll ahout, to, ku-selasela, ku- 

barita. 
Stncggle, to, ku-lwana. 
Stivdy, to, ku-funda. 
Stump, kisliiki. 
Stun, to, ku-kurumusha. 
Stunned, to he, ku-kurumua. 
Suhmit, to, ku-rumagia. 
Suhtlety, ulaclm. 
Succeed, to [to prosper], ku-pata, 

ku-dea. 
Succour, to, ku-taria, ku-arura. 
Sy>ch \mch and such], usiku na 

usiku ; [such and such a thing], 

kisiku na kisiku ; [stcch and 

such a man], msiku na msi- 

ku. 
Stick, to, ku-mama. 
Sicckle, to, ku-mamisa. - 

Suddenly, shwoshwo, kafwani, 

aoen. 
Sue, to, ku-leila. 
Suffer J tOy ku-rumagia ; po /eel 
pain]y ku-harisa ; [fo sitj'er 



loss], ku-ona buga, ku-pata 

asara. 
Suffice, to, ku-katisa, T» V. ; 

ku-kata, /. V. ; ku-gutisa, 

T. V. ; ku-guta, /. V, 
Sugar, sukari. 
Su^ar-cane, mugwa. 
SuJ.k, to, ku-oma ngolo. 
Sulkiness, uana, furusi. 
Sun, ijua. 

Sunheams, mlengezi. 
Sundries, takataka. 
Sunrise, ku-cha. 
Sunset, ku-swa ; where th/t sun 

sets is called mfuniingovi. 
S%iperintend, to, ku-lola, ku-zi- 

gana. 
SvperintendenZ, mzigani. 
Supper, kilalilo. 
Support, to \to 2>^op], ku-figika ; 

\to keep], ku-le]a. 
Suppose,to,'kw.-g2i,mhdi. [lit. to say]. 
Surpass, to, ku-ita. 
Surprise, to, ku-shinisa. 
Surprised, to he, ku-shinika. 
Surrotind, to, ku-marisa, T. V. ; 

ku-mara, /. V, 
Survey, to, ku-laula. 
Survive, to, ku-kila. 
Swallow, to, ku-miza, ku-mila. 
Swear, to, ku-gema ; when a 

man swears he says, a bas ; — 

cause, to, ku-gemesha. 
Sweat, iragudia. 
Sweat, to, ku-rugudia ; — cause 

to, ku-ragudisa. 
Sweep, to, ku-shera. 
Sweet, to he, ku-singa. 
Sweeten, to, ku-singiza ; [na si- 

ngilo, / like [lit. I am sweet- 
ened]. 
Sweetheart, mlume yangu [lit. 

my mani] ; mke wangu [lit. 

my womai\]. 
Sweettiess, msinga. 
SiBcU, to, koL-^wxa.. A 



12^ 



VOCABULARY. 



Table, meza. 

Table-clothf nguo ya meza. 

Tailf kirensi, inkoba ; [tail of a 
birdjf mshushu. 

TaJcCf tOy ku-usa ; — across^ ku- 
ambusa ; a walk, ku-barita, 
ku-sela ; — away^ ku-funya ; 

— by foTcCy ku-soka, ku-am- 
bula ; — cxurCy ku-lola, ku-ma- 
iiya ; — care of ku-ika ; — 
dowiif ku-angula ; — fire^ ku- 
wata moto ; — leave of ku- 
laga ; — off clothes, ku-nia ; 

— ovi, ku-funya, ku-ega ; — 
out of tlie pot, ku-ula ; — 
revenge, ku-lwaua sili ; — to a 
person, ku-genscla, ku-twali- 
la ; — to a place, kugensa, 
ku-fisa. 

Tale, lugano, ngno. 

Tale, to tell a, ku-gana. 

Talk, to, ku-sumurii-a, ku-helea. 

Talker, msumuriri. 

Tall, -lele ; with nouns of the 

third class, ndele. 
Tamarind-tree, mkeju ; fruit, 

ikeju. 
Taine, to, ku-kelesa. 
Tame, to be, ku-kela. 
Tatik, klna cha meji. 
Tarry, to, ku-muka ; — cause 

to, ku-mukisa. 
Taste, to, ku-toa ; — cause to, 

ku-toesa. 
TcacA,to,ku-fuiidisha, ku-funda. 
Teacher, m fundi. 
Tear, mbori. 
Tear, to, ku-rashura, ku-zaia ; 

\to be torn], ku-rashuka, ku- 

zaika ; [to tear down a house], 

ku-fuchula ; [a house to be torn 
/"down], ku-fuchuka. 
-fe%«!^ ^, ka-koronga, ku-emeka. 
£y/4 ^, ku-gom, ku-gnmba, 
^ey^i^^^ra^, -a kai-akai-a. 



Tempest, ngungu. 
Tempt, to, ku-tima. 
Tempter, mtimi. 
Ten, ikumi. 
Tend, to, ku-lisa. 
Tender, to be, ku-hanyua. 
Terrify, to, ku-kumba oga. 
Terror, uoga. 
Test, to, ku-tima. 
^Testicles, makende. 
Thank, to, ku-uza asanta. 
Thankfulness, kirani. 
That inan, mdu uyla. 
Thai thing, kindu kilya [see 

Grammar], 
Thai [how that] kamba ; [in 

order that], [see OroAnmar^ 

sttbj, 7nood]. 
Thatch, to, ku-vimba. 
Thee, uwe. 
Their, -awe. 
Theft, uting'a. 
Them, waio. 
Theinselves, wo wen. 
Then [afterwards], nao, konyu- 

ma, nyuma yake, aho, alioba ; 

[after this], niko ; [in those 

days], matuku 'galya ; [at that 

time], ijua lyilya ; ^Hhen*' is 

often expressed by use of the 

'ka- tense [nee Grammar, also 

condit. tenses]. 
There, alio, ao, igasi, alya, ao- 

en, alyen. 
Therefore, kwa hung'. 
These, awa [see Qra/mmar, 

demonst, pro,]. 
They, -ao, waio. 
Thick, -rifu ; vrUh nouns of the 

third class, ndifu. 
Thicken, to [as porridge], ku-ru- 

fusa, T, V, ; ku-rufuka, /. V, 
Thin, -suae. 
Thin,to become [as porridge], ku- 

salama. 
Thin, to malce \a8 poTrid,g?\ Vssl- 

salamisa. 



VOCABULARY. 



123 



Thing, kindu ; [an inferior 

thing], kinyamandu ; [things 

of the intellect], undu, vila- 

mbo, gore ; [there is nothing], 

sikwesi undu ; [what kind of 

doings are these ?], gore muni 

izo? 
40^Third, katatu. 
Thirst, kau. 
Thirst, to, ku-kaua ; — catise 

to, ku-kauisa. 
"thirteen, ikumi na -tatu. 
This, uyu [see Grammar, 

demonst. pro.]. 
Thither, aho [see there]. 
Thorn, mwia, munjwa. 
Those, awa [see Grammar, 

demonst. pro.]. 
Tho'U, uwe. 
Though, hatta, kweni [see 

Grammar, condit. tenses]. 
Thought, igelelo. 
Thrash, to, ku-kwita. 
Thread, tama, luzi. 
Threaten, tOf ku-kumba oga [lU.Jf 

to frighten]. 
0^Three, -tatu ; with nouns of the 

third class, ndatu. 
Thrill, to, ku-sukisa. 
Throat, irangi. 
Throttle, ^o, ku-nyora. 
Through [to put through], ku-isa 

ku-tsira ; [to come through], 

ku-poka. 
Throw to, ku-kumba ; — about, 

ku-tagataga ; — away ku-ta- 

ga ; — c^M7w,ku-buka, ku-gwi- 

sha. 
Thrust, ku-sindika. 
Thumb, ehala cha kigosL 
Thump, to, ku-daha. 
Thunder, to, mvula ku-duduga 

[lU. the rain to run away]. 
Thunder [without rain], eBturo, 

the inhnbiiants of the heavens 

sujfposed to befigJUing. 
TAtis, bung\ 



Thy, -ako. 

Thyself, uwe mwen. 

Thwart, to, ku-nona. 

Tickle, to, ku-hodahoda. 

Ticks, ngua, the smxtll black 
kind, sauga ; the spotted kind 
which infest goats, macherere- 
ndL 

Tie, to, ku-funga ; — a knot, ku- 
findika. 

Tighi, to be, ku-manga. 

Tighten, to, ku-mangisa ; [to 
pull], ku-nita. 

Till, hatta. 

Timber, mwiti 

Time, iigelo, hawa, mbaza, 
luma, these refer more espedaZ- 
ly to present time ; igeri, ituku, 
these refer more especially to 
past time [times], mageri, ma- 
tuku ; [sujkient time], ijua 
ni ibwaa ; [hour], saa ; [a long 
tim^], luma ; [a long time 
a^o], kalere. 

Tims of the day, makeo, very . 
early, the first crow of the 
cock ; ikesho kiro, the second 
crow of the cock ; ikesho, after 
ths 8un has appeared ; msen- 
ya, day-time ; msenya 'gati, 
midday; ijua ku-chungulu- 
ka, c^ter twelve o* clock ; ha- 
faka, afternoon or evening; 
lumisimisi, about dusk ; kiro, 
nigJU ; nyungu ku-kalla moto- 
ni, about nine o'clock [lit. the 
pot to be still on the fire] ; wandu 
ku-tungura, teii to eleven [lit. 
the people to go to sleep] ; liari- 
ng'a za hambiri, twelve to two 
[lit. the first sleep] ; haring'a za 
nyuma [lit. ths last 8leep],three 
to four. 

Times of ths year [see season]. 

Timid, -oga. 

Tire, to, kj^-ka^^^-aa.^ kja.-- 






124 



VOCABULARY. 



To [a sigoi of the infinitive], ku-. 

To J before a verb where it ex- 
presses a purpose, is generally 
expressed by the subjun/^ive ; 
nihawe meji ninwe, give me 
water that I may drink; 
muze agende shwoshwo, tell 
him to go quickly; unto is 
generally contaiirved in the 
verb; when not thus con- 
tained, it may be expressed by 
the applied form of the verb or 
by the word Kwa ; nagenda 
kwa aba, / go to my father ; 
\asfar as], hatta. 

Toba^cco, kimbako. 

Tobo/cco-pipe, toza. 

To-day, lelo ; [this day"], lelo 
kwen. 

Toe, chala. 

Together, to be, ku-kezanya, ku- 
kalla andu kumoju. 

Token, alauia. 

Tolerate, to, ku-nimagia. 
JPo-morrow, ikeslio ; [day after 
to-7norrow], lau. 

Tongs for pulling out the eye- 
lashes, ngula. 

ToTigue, ulumi. 

Too, sena. 

Tooth, ijego. 

Tooth-ache, ijego kulya ; [ijego 
lyanilya], my tooth aches. 

Toj), lugulu. 
^To})sy-turvy [of a bow], tsingilo. 

Torment, utiriri. 

Torment, to, ku-tirira. 

Torrtientor, mtiriri. 

Tortoise, nguru. 

Total, -ose, putu. 

TouAih, to, ku-wata. 

Tough, to be, ku-kula. 

Towards, ngila ya. 

Towel, nguo ya ku-kuagila [lit. 
/^ c/oi?t to wipe oneself \ 
fr -f^^<^'^4 kaia, miizi. , 

-^•^4 hvaio, kitende, mvori. 



Track, to, ku-chwila, ku-irima 

Iwaio. 
Trad^, to, ku-clmma, ku-zogora. 
Trader, mchumi, nizogoii. 
Trail, to, ku-kurugusa. 
Train, to, ku-lela. 
Trample, to, ku-latila. 
Tranf'forrm, to, ku-galula, T, V. ; 

ku-galuka, /. V. 
Transgress, to, ku-kosa. 
Translate, to, ku-galula mate to, 

ku-dzigidza [?]. 
Trap, mtego, iliwa. 
Trap, to, ku-tega. 
Travail, to [o/«troma?i],kulumo. 
Travel, to, ku-tamba. 
Traveller, mtambi, mcharo. 
Tray, kihoro. 
Treacle, uki 'gwa mugwa. 
Tread, to, ku-latila ; — into 

plaster, ku-rua. 
Treat, to well, ku-dea kiraiii ; 

— badly, ku-dea lagelage. 
Tree, mwiti. 

Tremble, to, ku-sukasuka. 
Trench, shoko, muvo. 
Trial, kutimo, itirao. 
''Tribe, mbari, kikuku, lukolo. 

Mwibabu, a tribe of wild 

people supposed to have once 

inhabited Taita. 
Tribulation, mashaka, buga, 

vilambo. 
Trick, tambo. 
Trim, to, ku-boesa. 
Triumph, to, ku-sima. 
Trouble, vilambo, buga, undu 

'guwasi. 
Troicble, to, ku-gama, ku-eme- 

ka ; [to get people iiito trouble], 

ku-shekera. 
Tr&ubled in mind, to be, ku-she- 

kero ni ngolo, ku-hariso iii 

ngolo. 
True, fulo. 
Tnimpei \a large kudu luyraY 

gunda. 



VOCABULARY. 



125 



Trunk, of a tree, kiiimba ; [ — 
of a tree cut down], gogo. 

Tinuft, to, ku-lolila [lit. to look 
to] ; ku-tsiuila [lit. to lean 
upo7i] ; ku-dumusa [lit, to 
assent to]. 

Truth, fulo kwenL 

Try, to, ku-tima. 

Tub, buta. 

Tumble, to, ku-gwa ; — cause, to, 
ku-gwisha. 

Turban, kilemba. 

Turn, to, ku-galula, T. V. ; ku- 
galuka,/. V, ; — over, ku-chu- 
ngulusa, T. V. ; ku-chungulu- 
ka,/. V, ; — round, ku-marisa, 
T, V. ; ku-mara, I. V. ', — 
back, ku-taiigalila, ku-chu- 
lusa. 

Tui-n [by turns], ndisa. 

Tusk elephant, Iwembe Iwa njo- 
vu, njovu. 
twelve, ikumi na mbi'.i. 
^Ttcenty, mirongo miili. 
Choice, kaili. 

Twist, to, ku-riga. 

Twisted, to be, ku-rigika. 

^Two, pili, -ill ; with nouns of the 
third class, mbili. 

U 



Undress, to, ku-rua. 

Unfold, to, ku-kunjula, T. F. ; 
ku-kunjuka, /. V, 

Unite, to, ku-lunga, ku-iiasa. 

UnUy, umoju. 

UnloAJoful, to be, ku-rigido ; — 
to make, ku- rigida. 
^^nripe \yoiong], ikoo, 

Untliatch, to, ku-fuchula. 

Until, hatta. 

Unto, kwa [see to]. 

Up, igalu. 

Upon, na lagulu ; case in -ni 
[see on]. 

Uppermost, -a lugulu. 

Upright, to be, ku-kalla kimusi. 

Uproar, kondo. 

Urge, to, ku-sindika. 

Urinate, to, ku-kojela. 

Urine, makojo. 

Us, isi. 

Use, to, ku-tumila ; [to beofuse]^ 
ku-fweni. 
JjJsed up garden, bahawa. 
- 'Use [cusUmi], ada. 



Udder, sumka. 

Ugly, to be, ku-wasi. 

Ulcer, kilonda, 

Umbrella, mwavuli. 

Unawares [he caught me un- 
awares], an' doka lagelage. 

Uncle [the mother's brother], 
haka. 

Uncover, to, ku-fundula. 

Under, isi. 

Understand, to, ku-sikila [lit. 
to hear] ; ku-manya, ku-ta- 
mbula [lit, to kn^ow]. 

Undo, to, ku-fungula [lit. to un- 
/asien] ; ku-fundula \lii, to 



fVagina, ngini. 
Vain, in, -a bule. 
Valiatit m/in, mvaru, ing'oni. 
J^Valley, sliambi. 
Valuable, to be, ku-kalla ua ki- 

ma kibwaa. 
Value, to, ku-ika kima ; [to put 

a price upon], [what is the 

price ?], zogoii ni ije ? 
Vegetables, mboga ; kisenya, the 

leaf of a weed; mnavu, leax^cs 

of the bean plant ; kitojo, ire- 

nge, pumpkin. 
Vein, nasi [lit. imiscle], 
Ven^ture, to, ku-tima. 
Very, saua, na ndigi, muuo, 
Vex, to, ku-asiia. 
Vexed, to be, ku-bia. 



u?i.^/:^] ; ku-nona [lit. to S!poiJ\. VViXlctgc, \aKa., \sv^^\. 



126 



VOCABULARY. 



Violence^ machu, ndigi. 

Visible^ to be, ku-oneka. 

Visitj to, ku-genda kulola. 

Visited, to he, ku-jUo. 

Voice, Iwaka. 

Vomit, to, ku-kweza ; — cavus^ 

to, ku-kwezesha. 
Vow, mguli [lit, an oathi, 
Vo^v, to, ku-nwa mguli. 
Vulture, ndere. 

W 

Wag, to, ku-nyavura. • 

Wages, mafuDgu. 

Wail, to, ku-liia. 

Wailing, kililo. 

Wait, to, ku-muka, kn-dafwa ; 
[wait a hi£\, muka jakundi, 
muka jako ; genda jaudi, go 
away first. 

Wake, to, ku-ukisa, T, V, ; ku- 
uka, /. V. ; \to lie atoake], ku- 
lavile : this verb is past in 
form, but present in meaning, 
ku-lala meso. 

Walk, kigendo. 

Walk, to, ku-tembea, ku-genda 
na rnagulu ; [to walk ciboiU], 
ku-ma:amara ; [to taJce a 
walk], ku-sela, ku-barita ; [to 
walk lame], ku-sliogora. 

Wall, kipesa. 

Wander, to, ku-selasela, ku-ma- 
ramara. 

Want, [poverty], ukiwa. 

Want, to,ku-hada, ku-shaia ; [to 
be wanting] ku-soeka. 

Wants, mahadi. 
— War, uta. 

Ward off, to, ku-kiuga. ^ 

Warm, to, ku-patsisa moto, ku- 
buggisa, moto ; — oneself, ku- 
bu^^ moto ; — [to warm by 

s^e/^ering], icu-rugudisa ; [to 

l^ i^arm by sAelteriny], ku- 
ru-gudia. 



Warm water, meji *ga moto. 

Warm place, andu kurngndia. 

War7nth, moto. 

Warn, to, ku-gorera [lit, to 
tell]. 

Wart-hog, jalo. 

Was [I icas], neluo [see Gram- 
mar, verb *^to be"]. 

Wash, to, ku-ogesha ; — dothes, 
ku-fula ; — on'self, ku-oga. 

Waste, to, ku-taga bule, ku-nona 
bule. 

Watch, to, ku-linda ; — for, ku- 
dafvvaiira, ku-lolila. 

WaichTnan, mlindirL 

Wa^r, meji. 

Water, to, a garden, ku-fingn 
meji ; — plants, ku-tubiin 
meji, ku-sukila meji ; [to 
m^ke ujater], ku-kojcla. 

Water-buck, sliakwa, 

Waier-jar, saugu. 

Wave, to, ku-pepea. 

Waves, mivomivo. 

Wa>x, sungu ; [earwax], maula. 

Way, ngila. 
'4Vay, to make a, ku-vula, ku- 
vunja mbale. 

Waylay, to, ku-lalila. 

We, isi. 

Weak, to be, ku-soa ndlgi [lit>. 
to be unthotU strength]. 

Weakness, unyongi. 

Wealth, mali. 

Wear, to [to put on], ku-rwara ; 
[to wear out], ku-demesa, 
T. V, ; ku-dema, /. V, 

Weary, to, ku-kojesa. 

Weary, to be, ku-koja. 

Weave, to, ku-luka. 

Wedding money [the beads, hoes, 
doth, etc. necessary to complete 
the bargain], malasa. 

Wedge, kiano. 

Weedy to, \col-Wtoi^. 

ITcep, to, VmAWsji. 



\ 



VOCABULARY. 



127 



Weeping^ kililo. 
Weigh, to, ku-tima. 
Well, kiua cha meji. 
fFell, to be, ku-kalla hanana, 
kn-kalla maana, ku-kalla 



moro. 

Weil, to get, ku-boa. 

Were [ive were], teluo [see 
Cframmar], 

Wet, to, ku-nyafusa. 

Wet, to be, ku-nyafua. 

What f kimuni ? ini ? -ni suf- 
fceed to the verb [see Gram- 
mar'} ; [that which] [see Gram- 
mar], 

Whatever, -ingi, used only in the 
negative sense, as si kiiidu chi- 
ngi [lit. nothing whatever], 

Whenf nini? 

Wh^en [if, as soon as, etc.] [see 
Cframmar, coixdit, tenses]. 

Whenever [whenever I go], andu 
nlgenda. 

Wh&re f hiyo ? iyo ? [see Gram- 
m£f,r.] 

Where [the place where], andu, 
[/ don't bnow where he is], 
siinanya andu eo. 

Wherefore, kwa hung*. 

Wherever, andu kose. 

Whet, to, ku-nola, ku-kabanya 
[lU, to rub two knives togeth^er]. 

Whetstone, kinolo. 

Whether — or, — ango — ango ; 
[if], ngera, nda. 

Which ? -hiyo, -iyo ; uoiyo ? 
which man ? [see Grammar], 

While is expressed by the tbse of 
the -ke- tevise [see Grammar, 
condit, tenses]. 

Whisper, to, ku-shashira. 

Whistle [a reed whistle], nguli. 

Whistle, to, ku-ficha. 
» White, -mnynge ; [the white neck 
of a raven], ikombe. 

fFkiJfe ants, tlyeha, lasa^) 
[white ant-hill], mbalyo. 



IVTio ? ani ? 

Whoever [he who likes], uu a- 

shaia ; [he tcho is found], uu 

adoko. 
Whole [all], -ose, putu, kamare, 

-lanzi, with nouns of the third 

class, ndanzi, nzima ; [a whole 

tree], mwiti inlauzi ; [the pot 

full], nyungu nzima. 
Whole [sound], -zima, -a banana, 

inaana. 
Whom? ani? 
Whose f -a ani ? 
Why? kudani? kwani ? kwai- 

je ? -a kimuni ? 
Wicked, -a lagelage. 
Wide, -shabwa. 
Wide, to be, ku-shabuka. 
Widen, to, ku-shabusa. 
Widow, nike afwilo ni mlume. 
Width, usliabwa. 
^Wife, muke. 
Wild, -a sakeni. 
Wild animals, nyamandu. 
\^Wildem£ss, kireti ; that part of 

the wilderness near the mouti- 

tains, which is cultivated, is 

called nyika. 
Will, to, ku-hada, ku-shaia. 
Will [mind], ngolo, kasidi. 
Will [shall] [see Grammar], 
Wind, mbeo. 
Wind, to, ku-riga, T, V, ; ku- 

marisa, T, V, ; ku-rigika, 

/. V, ; ku-mam, /. V, 
Window, ilanga, idirisha. 
Wing, ibambato. 
Wipe, to, ku-agila, ku-angula. 
Wire [thick brass wire], matsa- 

ngo ; [thin brass toire], mkunzo . 
Wisdom, ulachu, uya. 
Wise man, mlachu. 
Wise, to be, ku-kalla na ulachu. 
Wish, ihadi. 
Wish, to, ku-hada, ku-shaia. 



128 



VOCABULARY. 



pyuhj na ; [to he in company 
with], ka-kezanya ; [an in- 
strument]^ na, kwa ; [having], 
-esi, -enyi. 

Withdraio, to, ku-funya, T, V, ; 
kii-fuma, /. V. 

Wither, to, ku-nyaza, T, V, ; 
ku-nyala, /. V, ; ku-omesa, 
T. V. ; ku-oma, /. V, 

Withhold from, to, ku-ima. 

Within, am wen, amwenikwen. 

Without, sliigati. 

Withaitt, to be, ka-soa. 

Withstand, to, ku-nimagia. 

Witness, to, ka-ona. 

Woe, vilambo [lit. trouble]. 
JWoinan, rauke, mdumuke ; [a 
young unmarried woman], 
moihana. 

Womb, kifu. 

Wonder, irjhiniko. 

Wonder, to, ku-shiuika. 

Wood, mwiti. 

Wool of the sheep's back, mafuri 
'ga nff'onzi. 



Word, iteto, gore. 

Work, kazi. 

Work, to, ku-dea kazi. 

Work iron, to, ku-shana kizia. 

Workman, mkazi. 

World, isaiiga lyose, masanga 

*gose, uruniengu[?] 
Worm, kivunyu. 
Worn-out thing, kidemo. 
Worry, to, ku-siiimisha, T. V.', 

ku-sirima, /. V. 
•- Worship, to, kii-voia, kutasa. 
Worth,\L\mvk ; \^what is it worth ?] 

zogori ni ije ? 
Worthy, to be, ku-fweni \lit to 

be of 2cse to], yamfweni kuha» 



wo [lit. it behoves him to he 

given]. 
Would, mangii, macha [see 

G^ramviar]. 
Wound, to, kii-lumiza, ku-paia 

luguma ; [to wound the head], 

ku-paia luguma, ku-bara 

ngoru, 
Wrath, hari. 
Wriggle, to, ku-rigariga. 
Wring, to, ku-kamula. • 
Wrist, ungo. 

Write, to, ku-tsora, ku-andika. 
Writer, mtsori, mwandiki. 
Wrong, ikosi. 
Wrong, to, ku-kosa. 



Vawn, to, ku-enda miayo. 

Ve, inyu. 

Vear, mwaka. 

Veil, to, ku-kema. 

Vcs, ee, eee ; [it is so], fulo 
kwen ; [that is just so], ko 
kwen. 

Yesterday, igulo ; the day before 
yesterday], ijuzi. 

Vet [until now], hatta ilyi. 

Volk of an egg, loga. 

Vondcr, alya, kulya [see Gram- 
^nar]. 

Voii, inyu. 

Vaicr, -ako. 

Vottng, -koo. 
^ Vounj man, mtawana. 
^^Voung people, irika. 

Vourself, uwe mwen. 
irV&iUh, unake. 



Zebra, foro. 



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